The Sex-Gender Distinction in Feminist Thought

1. The Sex-Gender Distinction and Feminist Consciousness

The distinction between sex and gender is key to the advancement of feminist consciousness. Several feminist authors have elaborated on this distinction, while others have questioned its importance.

Authors Who Emphasize the Distinction

Mary Wollstonecraft, in her seminal work A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, argued that women should be treated as human beings first and foremost. She suggested that gendered behavior was learned through education

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Social Interaction and Group Dynamics in a Risk Society

Sociological Theories and Group Social Work

Mid-Level Theory

Facing Parsons’ grand theory, Merton calls for a mid-level theory. This approach focuses on analyzing a defined area of social phenomena, favoring the establishment of proper connections between theoretical and empirical research.

Conflict Theory

Its main proponent is Ralf Dahrendorf. He believed society always has two aspects: conflict and consensus. These processes are interrelated. Dahrendorf devoted his efforts to developing a theory of

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A Historical Journey of Organizational Behavior: Theories, Challenges, and Opportunities

The Historical Development of Organizational Behavior (OB)

The historical development of organizational behavior (OB) is a fascinating journey that has evolved over centuries, influenced by various disciplines, events, and societal changes.

Early Management Theories (Late 19th to Early 20th Century)

Classical Management Theory

The early 20th century saw the emergence of classical management theories, primarily pioneered by Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, and Max Weber. Taylor introduced scientific management,

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Understanding Cognitive Development: Piaget and Learning Theories

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Jean Piaget proposed that a child’s mind develops progressively through distinct stages. He believed that intelligence is the ability to adapt to the environment.

Sensorimotor Stage

In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through actions. For example, a baby learning to pull a blanket to reach a toy is exhibiting intelligence. Piaget called this a scheme of action.

  • Assimilation: Incorporating new stimuli into existing schemes.
  • Accommodation: Adjusting existing
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Understanding Perception and Motivation


Perception refers to the process through which individuals interpret and make sense of sensory information from their environment. It involves selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory inputs to create a meaningful understanding of the world around us. Perception is subjective, meaning that it can vary from person to person based on their unique experiences, beliefs, and cognitive processes.

Factors Influencing Perception:

  1. Sensory Abilities: Individuals’ sensory abilities, such as
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Emotional Development in Children: A Comprehensive Guide

Emotional Development in Early Childhood

Early in life, pain and pleasure are inextricably linked to the satisfaction of instinctual drives and basic needs. The development of affection in children has the following characteristics:

Characteristics of Emotional Development in Children

  1. Intense Emotional Experiences: Children experience emotions intensely, easily shifting from laughter to tears. This is due to their developing nervous system and their egocentric perspective. Their limited understanding
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