What is Information? It is a form of knowledge that we acquire through education, communication, practical experience, research, analysis or ratiocination. 

It consists of data, facts, and conclusions. 

To the scientist concerned with communications theory it is the opposite of entropy.1

To the computer scientist it is any data that can be expressed as a sequence of ones and zeros

Information Assurance: Measuresthat protect and defend information and information systems by assuring their availability,

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15. Consider the extended LAN connected using bridges B1 and B2 in the given Figure.  a.)A sends a packet to C. (b) E sends a packet to F. (c) F sends a packet to E. (d) G sends a packet to E. (e) D sends a packet to A. (f) B sends a packet to F
     a.) B1 will forward this packet on ports 2, 3, and 4. B2 will forward it on 1, 2 and 3.  b.)B2 will forward this packet on ports 1, 3, and 4. B1 will forward it on 1, 2 and 3.  c) B2 will not forward this packet on any of its ports, and B1 will
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1. why it is much easier to do algorithm analysis than it is to do algorithm design. Your answer should include an example of a problem for which an algorithm already exists and all that is required of you is to analyze it versus another problem for which no algorithm exists and you are required to design one. 

v When one does algorithm analysis, there is already an algorithm that is to be analyzed. What one does then is to apply the rules of analysis as we had studied them in class – rules for

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DETERMINANTS OF WORKING CAPITAL: The factors influencing the working capital decisions of a firm may be classified as two groups, such as internal factors and external factors. The internal factors includes, nature of business size of business, firm’s product policy, credit policy, dividend policy, and access to money and capital markets, growth and expansion of business etc. The external factors include business fluctuations, changes in the technology, infrastructural facilities, import policy
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Operation on a Process

  1. Process creation:  A user requests, and already running process can creates new processes. Parent process creates children processes using a system call, which, in turn create other processes, forming a tree of processes.
  2. Process pre-empting:  A process pre-empted if I/O event or timeout occurs. Then process moves from running state to ready state and CPU loads another process from ready state to running state, if available.
  3. Process blocking: When a process needs I/O event
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