What is an algorithm?

A programming algorithm is a computer procedure that is a lot like a recipe (called a procedure) and tells your computer precisely what steps to take to solve a problem or reach a goal

How old Is Data management?

Early Data Management include File and Database systems that were designed prior the relational database in the 1970s. Including ( Flat File Dta. Mangmt. | Hierarchical Dta. Mgmt. Sytms. | Network Dta. Mgmt. Sytms.)

What are the different generations of Databases?


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In the TCP/IP model, the Network Interface layer corresponds to which layer(s) of the OSI model? – Physical and MAC layers

Give three examples of link layer protocols? – IEEE 802.3/Ethernet, Frame Relay, ATM, and SONET

In the TCP/IP layer, the network layer is responsible for enabling the routing of the data across (logical or physical): – It is across logical network path as it uses packet format and IP address format.

What is the min/max length of an IP header? – 20/65535octets

Which field in the

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jane eyre

basin→  a container for water, for washing the hands and face

bear→  to suffer pain or unhappiness

Bible→  the holy book of the Christian religion

biscuit→ a flat, thin, dry cake

boarding school→ a school where pupils live

bully → a person who hurts or frightens weaker people on purpose

charity→ giving money, help, etc. to people in need (e.g. in the old days to a school for poor children)

Christian→ a person who believes in the teachings of Jesus Christ

churchyard→ ground near or belonging

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Investment decision relates to the determination of total amount of assets to be held in the firm ,the composition of these assets and the business risk complexions of the firm as perceived by its investors .It is the most important financial decision that the firm makes in pursuit of making shareholders wealth. Investment decision can be classified under two broad groups. * Long –term investment decision i.e. Capital budgeting. * Short-term investment decision i.e. Working Capital Management. Read More


  1. What are sample applications of clustering in which the objective is to cluster the samples/observations (this is the most common use of clustering)?

    1. Machine learning, data mining, information retrieval, bioinformatics, data compression

  1. What are sample applications of clustering in which the objective is to cluster the variables/features?

    1. Clustering is used in market segmentation; where we try to find customers that are similar to each other whether in terms of behaviors or attributes, image segmentation/

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Acceptability Software must be acceptable to the type of users for which it is designed. This means that it must be understandable, usable, and compatible with other systems that they use. Dependability and security Software dependability includes a range of characteristics including reliability, security, and safety. Dependable software should not cause physical or economic damage in the event of system failure. Software has to be secure so that malicious users cannot access or damage the system.

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