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ReproductionReproduction is an integral feature of all living beings. The process by which a living being produces its own like is called reproduction.

Importance of Reproduction:Reproduction is important for each species, because this is the only way for a living being to continue its lineage. Apart from being important for a particular individual, reproduction is also important for the whole ecosystem. Reproduction helps in maintaining a proper balance among various biotic constituents of the ecosystem.

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Data items presented in a digital certificate
Serial number,Certificate Authority that issued certificate,CA digital signature,Name of company/organisation/individual owning certificate,Subject public key,Period during which certificate is valid,Hashing algorithm
Conditions message is authentic
Digital certificate,Includes public key,Used to hash message received / produce message digest,Generated hash compared to digital signature
Usage of encrypted message digest
Financial transaction,Legal document,

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15. Consider the extended LAN connected using bridges B1 and B2 in the given Figure.  a.)A sends a packet to C. (b) E sends a packet to F. (c) F sends a packet to E. (d) G sends a packet to E. (e) D sends a packet to A. (f) B sends a packet to F
     a.) B1 will forward this packet on ports 2, 3, and 4. B2 will forward it on 1, 2 and 3.  b.)B2 will forward this packet on ports 1, 3, and 4. B1 will forward it on 1, 2 and 3.  c) B2 will not forward this packet on any of its ports, and B1 will
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software engineering

What is software? Computer programs and associated documentation. Software products may be developed for a particular customer or may be developed for a general market.

 What are the attributes of good software? Good software should deliver the required functionality and performance to the user and should be maintainable, dependable, and usable. 

What is software engineering?Software engineering is an engineering discipline that is concerned with all aspects of software production from the early
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Web page Authoring Freeware

Smatterings A Writers Home Page

Web page Authoring Freeware

This is a list of software that made my life easier and freeware that I wish I had in the beginning.

Freeware Download Aids

freeware download aids link Freeware tools to help in unzipping and downloading software. Read this page first if you have never download a program from the Internet or are downloading many files for the first time and using an older PC operating Windows XP or lower.

Freeware to get you started in HTML

Freeware for Writing HTML

If you are just starting out you need two HTML editors:

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11. (a) What are two reasons for using layered protocols? (b) What are the two possible disadvantages of using layered protocols?        (a) Among other reasons for using layered protocols, using them leads to,(1) breaking up the design problem into smaller, more manageable pieces, and(2) layering means that protocols can be changed without affecting higher or lower ones.   b) Disadvantage of using layered protocols: (1) More overhead, due to added information or operation done in each layer. Read More