States of Matter, Mixtures, and Elements: A Chemistry Guide

States of Matter

Which state of matter has a definite volume and a definite shape?


Which state of matter has a definite volume but not a definite shape?


Which state of matter does not have a definite volume nor a definite shape?



Homogeneous Mixtures

Can homogeneous mixtures be filtered? Cannot

When in liquid form, homogeneous mixtures can also be called: Solutions

Heterogeneous Mixtures

All heterogeneous mixtures can be filtered. True

The process used to separate heterogeneous mixtures

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Chemistry Concepts: Solutions, Reactions, and Elements

What is mole fraction?

Mole fraction represents the number of molecules of a particular component in a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the given mixture. It’s a way of expressing the concentration of a solution.

Define formality and provide its formula.

“Formality is defined as the number of gram formula mass of solute dissolved per liter of solution.” It is used for ionic compounds. The formality of the solution is denoted by the symbol F. It is similar to normality.

What is the

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Comprehensive Guide to Pharmaceutical Drugs and Analytical Chemistry


Drugs promoting urine output are known as diuretic drugs, which refer only to those agents that act directly on the kidneys. These drugs primarily increase the excretion of water and ions like sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-, or bicarbonates HCO3-) from the body. Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion in kidneys determine the excretion of substances. They are employed in the treatment of various disorders like diabetes insipidus, nephrotic syndrome, hypertension,

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry: A Comprehensive Guide

Anti-infective agents are drugs that are used to treat or prevent infection.

Analgesics are medications that relieve pain.

Haematinics disease is caused by iron deficiency 

EDTA– Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid

Limit test is used to detect impurity.

Bleaching powder is used as oxidizing agent in chemical industries.

Acidifying agents are inorganic chemicals that either produce or become acid.

An error may be defined as the difference between measured and actual values.

Chemical name of alum is Aluminium

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Molar Mass Determination of a Non-Volatile Solute Using Raoult’s Law

Stage 3

An aqueous solution of 2% non-volatile solute exerts a pressure of 1.004 bar at the normal boiling point of the solvent. What is the molar mass of the solute?

Solution :

 Given values
Concentration is given in percent so that take
mass of the solution = 100 g
mass of non-volatile solute = 2% = 2g
mass of the solvent = (100 — 2) = 98 g
molecular mass of solvent (water) = 18
We have to find molecular mass of solute
The vapour pressure of pure boiling water = 1atm = 1.013 bar.

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Chemical Reactions: Concentration Effects & Enthalpy Changes

Aim: To study the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Theory: Law of mass action states that rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the product of active masses (molar concentrations) of reactants. The rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid depends on the concentration of reactants. As the concentration of reactants increases, the rate of reaction also increases. The balanced chemical reaction

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