The Birth of Modern Europe: Nationalism, Revolutions, and Industrialization

Nationalism. The birth of new states/ Nationalist ideas supported processes of unification. This was the case in Italy and Germany, where they contributed to the spread of ideas of building a unified liberal State. Nationalist ideas also helped lead to the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the rise of new States. 8.1 The unification of Italy (1859-1870) The process of unification was directed by the Kingdom of Piedmont- Sardinia. Central figures were Victor Emmanuel Il and Prime Minister Cavour, who

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Spain in the 19th Century: Bourbon Restoration, Industrial Capitalism, and European Migration

The Bourbon Restoration (1874-1902)

The Canovist System

The new monarchy adopted the Canovist system, a political system created by Antonio Cánovas del Castillo. It established a system that allowed political parties to alternate in power and promised political and social stability. One of the first objectives was the pacification of Spain. This put an end to the Carlist war in 1876, and in 1878, the Pact of Zanjon ended the Cuban Ten Years’ War. To guarantee stability in the new regime, the Constitution

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The British Empire: History, Colonization, and Decline

Q2.1 Great Britain – Past and Present: Character of a Nation

1. Great Britain – Tradition & Change

1.1: The British Empire

  • Trade + economics to increase wealth (monopoly on trade with Asia – British East India Company)
  • Adventure politics (to prevent other countries from becoming too powerful)
  • Religion (to spread Christianity)
Brief Overview of the History of Colonization:
  1. First British Empire: (1583 – 1783)
    • Related to the North American continent (Caribbean, America)
  2. Second Empire: (after
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Spanish Civil Code: History, Structure, and Reforms


1. Codification and Collection

The 18th century marked a historic moment highlighting the need to collect and organize legal rules. It became necessary to bring order to the sources of law, leading to a movement towards organization and simplification through codification. This movement sought to unify all legal matters under a single body of law, aiming for territorial unification and reform of the Spanish legal system, as some rules had become obsolete.

The historical roots

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The Age of Enlightenment and Revolution: Science, Society, and the Birth of Modernity

The Scientific Revolution

During the 18th century, Europe underwent a profound transformation in its worldview, particularly among the upper and middle classes. This shift, known as the Scientific Revolution, saw a move away from religious and theological explanations towards a more secular and scientific understanding of the world.

Causes of the Scientific Revolution

  • Medieval university philosophy, once intertwined with theology, began to break away, allowing science to emerge as a distinct field
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Major Events of the Cold War: A Timeline








Greek Civil War



The USA and Great Britain wanted to support the Greek government against the communist insurgents that wanted power.

Communists (supported by the Soviet alliance, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Albania)


Greek Anti-Communists (supported by the USA and Great Britain)

It ended with a victory for Greek Anti-Communists.

The country was devastated and there were many deaths.

  • It was the first example of post-
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