Guerra Civil Española

THE “DISASTER” OF 1898 King Alfonso XII died in 1885, before the birth of his son, who became Alfonso XIII in 1902. Meanwhile, Queen María Cristina acted as regent. But still the Conservative and Liberal Parties alternated in government. It took place the Cuban War of Independence (1895-98), where military forces sent from Spain suffered losses from epidemics. In 1898, USA entered the conflict and defeated the Spanish Army and, following the Treaty of Paris, Cuba became supposedly “independent”

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ITAL:fall.o.rom.emp(476)to.creat.of.otal.by.napoleon(1805) italy no nation
C.VIENA-italy.was.org.into7statesunder.dif.govern
LIBERAL.REV-1820carbonari:found.naplesXIX nacionalist liberals
RISORGIMIENT-rev.inic.spain.fer12.firm.const1812 3indep.war.ital

1859:cavour.1.minister.o.piedmont-sardinia want a const monarchy
1-unif nor italy territ contr by austr napolIIIof fr supor him against austria battles.o.magenta.solfernio.they defeated.austria.created.kingd.o.piedmont
sardinia piedmont lombardy and sardinia
1860:
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D

• Johns Gospel 
◦ 90 to 100 AD
◦ Author: John “beloved disciple” – follower of that
◦ Audience: Jewish/Christian community – Which probably had gentiles/samaritans accepted
◦ Most theological —> “explains in more detail”
• Chapter 1
◦ “In the beginning” —> Creation / Genesis 
◦ Word = Jesus (Logos in Greek)
‣ Jesus is God
‣ Divinity
◦ 1:10 —> Jesus has always been
◦ 1:14 —> Word became flesh
‣ Incarnation
◦ Personal testimony of John the Baptist 
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Definición

coup (d’état) a sudden and often violent overthrow of a government by a small group of people, usually with the help of the army. 

Popular Front the union of left-wing parties that narrowly won the Spanish election of 1936.

crimes against humanity crimes committed against a large group of civilians who are innocent, which are planned or accepted by the government. 

satellite state an independent country that is controlled or strongly influenced by another country.

SS (Schutzstaffel) the security

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d

Good speaker: In international account he will be invited to international meetings to report the status of the account in terms of strategy. He needs to be a good communicator for presentations. Proactive: Planners read, investigate, open their mind to new ideas… Account and creative interlocutor: He is in the middle, he works very closed to account and creative team. Find oppourtunities: Find opportunities is the aim of a planning department.

Strategic/planning department X Creative department:

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g y h

3

The reign of Alfonso XIl acceded to the throne in 1902 in a political environmentcharacterised by the crisis of Cánovas del Castillo’s political system,the influence of regenerationism and the deaths of Cánovas (1897) and Sagasta (1903). When studying his reign, historians usually look at two stages, divided by the crisis of 1917.

The continued practice of party rotation (1902-1917). Up until the year 1917, the two-party rotational system was maintained between the Conservative Party, led by

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