French Revolution


The declaration of the independence of the US of America and its constitution 1787 defended the inalienable rights of citizen, the separation of powers, principles of equality and freedom and the rights to elect a goverment.

Enlightment principles and American Revolution gave the bourgeoisie new ideas to help them confort absolutismand the stratified state system of society. New forms of social organization and goverment were proposed.


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1. Discuss Hobbes’s social contract and his state of nature.

The State of Nature is philosophical concept developed by Thomas Hobbes mainly in his work, The Leviathan, which describes what men’s life would be like in the absence of any type of social organization or government.  In this natural state, each man would live in accordance to his own will and rules, believing to have the right to everything, without any boundaries or limitation. It would justify any type of violence, since it provides

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The Reformation was a religious movement which began in the first half of the 16th century.
It instigated the division of the Christian church and the founding of protestant churches.
The causes of the Reformation were:
  • The low clergy’s lack of training.
  • The bad example set by the high clergy, They did not respect the customs or
    morals that they preached.
  • The church’s wealth. The high clergy lived a life of luxury. The church possessed extensive
    lands and taxed the humble
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Chassis- A computer case for any type of computer.

Tower case – The largest type of personal computer case. Tower cases stand vertically and can be as high as two feet tall. They have more drive bays and are a good choice for computer users who anticipate making significant upgrades.

desktop case – A computer case that lies flat and sometimes serves double-duty as a monitor stand.

VGA (Video Graphics Array) port – A 15-pin analog video port popular for many years. Also called DB15 port, DE15 port,

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Government :the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies.The three powers of the government (1) legislative power: the power to make laws and to frame public policies (2) executive powerthe power to execute, enforce, and administer laws judicial power the power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning, and to settle disputes that arise within the society.  Dictatorship: The responsibility for exercising of these powers may be held by a single person or by

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Ancient greece

The origins of greek civilisation go back to the prehistoric age, prehistoric stone tools have been discovered in different places in Greece and there is evidence that agriculture and livestock appeared around 7000 BC the ancient name of greece was, Hellas, which means ‘lands of the Hellenes’.

During this age 8th-6th centuries BC the poleis were governed by chiefs or kings, but they gradually lost power to the aristocracy who began to hold public positions.
Sometimes the aristocracy oppressed the
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