1.disturbed, annoyed, troubled: VEXED

2. careful, cautious, leery: WARY

3. boldness, daring, brazenness: AUDACITY

4. withheld, repressed, held back: REFRAINED

5. forcefully, passionately, furiously: VEHEMENTLY

6. smoothness, politeness, fine manners: SUAVITY

7. gestures, wild movements, spasms: GESTICULATIONS

8. scorn, ridicule, contempt: DERISION

9. sharp, sensitive, severe: ACUTE

10. intelligence, smarts, good sense: SAGACITY

Reading Comprehension

1. Why does the narrator decide to

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INFANTIL: The word ‘infantil’ is used here to refer to children 3-6. When we focus on Educació infantil, the foundations, the question is to start or not to start teaching English ‘that early’. Some voices argue that we should wait until the children are older and have developed cognitively. But in my own experience and after seeing the great results achieved in many of the schools that start teaching English in pre-primary, I would definitely go for a positive answer. Very young children can Read More

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14 When learners are allowed to interact freely (for example, in group or pair activities), they copy each other’s mistakes: If the activities are well designed and learners are appropriately matched, pair and group work provides far more practice in speaking and participating in conversations than a teacher-centred class ever could. Somewhat surprisingly, research has shown that learners do not produce any more errors in their speech when talking to learners at similar levels of proficiency than

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6 Most of the mistakes that second language learners make are due to interference from their first language: First, we should recognize that knowledge of one or more languages can contribute positively to many aspects of second or foreign language learning. If the languages are relatively close cousins (for example, English and German, Spanish and French, English and Spanish), there is much that learners already ‘know’-including the alphabet, cognate words, as well as some basic principles of Read More

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POPULAR IDEAS ABOUT LANGUAGE LEARNING REVISITED: In the Introduction, we presented a number of commonly expressed opinions about how languages are learned. We asked you to indicate how strongly you agreed with these opinions. Now that you have read about some of the theory and research in second language acquisition, take another look at those ideas. Have you changed your mind about the importance of imitation or feedback on errors, or whether starting second language instruction early is the best

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The notion of democracy deficit within the European Union has been widely used referring to a variety of factors affecting the European democratic process. Before to move forward into the critical assessment of those factors, it is worth to mention where the concept of democracy comes from and how the European Union has approached it since its establishment.

The term democracy comes from the Greek term demos (=people) and its literal translation to English would be “rule by the people”; it therefore

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