• A trophic level consist of all the organisms in an ecosystem which feed in the same way 
There are three types: 
Autotrophic organisms that perform photosynthesis and use solar energy to transform inorganic matter into organic matter 
Heterotrophic organisms that eat other living thingns:
   *primary consumers: feed on producers ,   they are herbivores (rabbits,deers)
   *secondary consumers: feed on primary consumers (frogs feed from insects)
   *terciary consumers:
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biología bilingue


The science that studies the Universe is astronomy.

Universe (or Cosmos): is everything that exists (matter, energy, space and time).The origin of the Universe

The most accepted theory about the origin of the universe is the Big Bang Theory:

All matter was concentrated in one point; the temperature was extremely high.

13700 million years ago there was a huge explosion, and there was an expansion in all directions.

The first atoms (hydrogen atoms) were formed, and then the first molecules.

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Atsc 113


Topic 1: Clouds, Ceiling, Visibility & Fog

1a. Identify & classify clouds, and relate them to local and larger-scale weather systems and to potential hazards to aircraft

  • Clouds can be normal or special. There are two types of normal clouds. 

    • Cumuliform (connective clouds) are puffy and associated with updrafts

      • Form when humid air rises through cooler air

        • This can occur when the air at the ground is colder than the surface (ex. Air above the ocean is colder than the ocean surface)

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GEOCHEMICAL MODEL: CRUST: aluminium silicates, Continental (heterogeneous, granite is abundant) Oceanic (homogeneous, basalt mainly) MANTLE: igneous rocks rich in iron and magnesium silicates. Mainly peridotite. The MANTLE has been traditionally divided into: upper mantle transition zone (denser materials due to higher temperature and pressure) lower mantle. but this layers do not have significant differences in chemical composition, the differences are of state and behaviour  CORE: almost pure

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GLACIERS: Glaciers cover 10% of the continnental surface at present.Glacier rfer to a thick mass of icethat moves over land.Ice floe is different. There are two types: .Alpine glaciers:Are found in mountain ranges at high elevations. Are confined by the mountain valleys that surround them. Continental glaciers:Also known as polar ice sheetss, cover enormous areas in polar regions. These glaciers are not confined by topography.
PARTS OF ALPINE GLACIER: The cirque is the uppermost section, has a rounded
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Levels of organization 
All living things have a structural and functional organization. Going from the list complex to the most complex: 
Atom: The smallest component of the chemical elements that make up living thing(bioelements) primarily carbon(C), oxygen(O), hydrogen(H), nitrogen(N), phosphorus(P), sulfur(S), calcium(Ca), magnesium(Mg)and sodium(Na). 
Molecule: A group of two or more atoms joined together chemically. The molecules that make up living things are called biomolecules. 

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