Measurement Scales, Statistical Concepts, and Research Methods in Social Sciences

Measurement Scales

Likert Scales

An ordinal level measurement of a person’s attitude, typically using a 5-7 point scale, allowing participants to indicate how much they agree or disagree with a statement. This method assumes that attitudes can be measured and ranked. It uses ordinal data with two extreme points and a neutral point, making it simple to complete.

Continuous Measurement Scale

Allows for fractional amounts/decimals, which make sense in this context.

Discrete Scale

Only fixed amounts can be

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Statistical Analysis of Various Research Studies

One-Sample t-test

– A study was conducted to investigate whether the age of tourists in Katatonia has increased since 1995.

In a random sample of 250 tourists in Katatonia, the average age was 47.77 years (s = 15.41 years). This is higher than the average age of 45 years recorded in 1995, and a one-sample t-test shows that this difference in mean age is significant, t(249) = 2.84, p = .005. The 95% confidence interval indicates that since 1995 the average age of tourists has increased

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Assessment Tools for Literacy and Cognitive Development in Children


1. Basic Functions Test – PFB


Neva Milicic and Olga Berdicewski (1974)


To assess the degree of maturity reached by the child to start learning reading and writing. Establishing a prognosis with regard to the time the child could delay the acquisition of reading and writing. Organize classes for children with differential immaturity.


Primarily children who have completed kindergarten or newly initiated 1st grade.


Consists of 8 subtests: copying figures, visual memory,

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Regression Analysis: A Guide to Modeling Predictive Relationships


Regression is a well-known statistical technique used to model the predictive relationship between several independent variables (DVs) and one dependent variable. The objective is to find the best-fitting curve for a dependent variable in a multidimensional space, with each independent variable being a dimension. The curve could be a straight line, or it could be a nonlinear curve. The quality of fit of the curve to the data can be measured by a coefficient of correlation (r), which is

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Simple Linear Regression

BIOS 7020:  Introductory Biostatistics II Fall 2018

Hanwen Huang, Ph.D.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics

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gif;base64,R0lGODlhBwAGAHcAMSH+GlNvZnR3Y Inference for one sample problem:  estimates, CIs and tests for

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Sampling Methods and Concepts: A Comprehensive Guide

Sampling Methods and Concepts

Sampling Error

Any difference between the characteristics of a sample and the characteristics of a population. The larger the sampling error, the less representative the sample.

Target Population

A set of elements larger than or different from the population sampled and to which the researcher would like to generalize study findings.

Representative Sample

A sample that “looks like” the population from which it was selected in all respects that are potentially relevant

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