NEGATIVE:Sold good is Aluminium. Aluminium factories emit pollution. For each unit of aluminium produced, a certain amount of pollutant enters the atmosphere and poses a health risk for those who breathe air

POSITIVE: The construction of a train station can provide shelter for the homeless when it is raining. If a company develops new technology, such as a database programme, this new technology can be implemented by other firms who will gain a similar boost to productivity.


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  • Standard deviation:  average measure from data and mean (square root of  variance).How far the data is on average from the mean.

    • Solve: Find the variance and take the square root of it.

  • Coefficient of Variation: standard deviation of two sets of data. Shown as as a percentage and measures the variation side by side with the mean

    • Solve:: CV = standard deviation/ mean * 100

  • Counting numbers is discrete

Center and Variability:

  • Descriptive Measures: a single number thats comes from the sample data  

  • Central

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Any marketing actions a firm takes today can change consumer’s brand awareness or brand image and have an indirect effect on the success of future marketing activities. For example; the frequent use of temporary price decreases as sales promotions may create or strengthen a “discount” association to the bran, with potentially adverse implications on customer loyalty and responses to future price changes or non-price-oriente marketing communication efforts. Marketers must actively manage brand

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Objective of creativity

  • To enhance creative potential by strengthening various mental abilities and shape an ordinary learner to become an extraordinary learner.
  • To expose the learners to creative problem solving exercises by developing integrative intelligence to become managers with creative skills.
  • To help the learners to become thoughtful managers by understanding workplace creativity and ways of harnessing (tie together) it for organizational excellence
  • To expand the
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Data can be numerical or categorical.

Numerical data can either be discrete (can only be particular numerical values) or continuous (can be any numerical value in a range).

Categorical data is non-numerical data that can be grouped into ‘categories.

Data can be represented as a graph or a table.

Common types of graphs include:


tally is a tool used for counting as results are gathered. Numbers are written as vertical lines with every 55th number having a cross through a group of lines.

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Define Patent. A patent for an invention is the grant of a property rights to the inventor, issued by the U.S Patent and Trademark Office. Generally, the term of a new patent is 20 years from the date on which the application for the patent was filed in the U.S or, in special cases, from the date an earlier related application was filed, subject to the payment of maintenance fees. The right conferred by the patent grant is“the right to exclude others from making, using, ofering for sale, or selling

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