## Measurement Scales, Statistical Concepts, and Research Methods in Social Sciences

## Measurement Scales

### Likert Scales

An ordinal level measurement of a person’s attitude, typically using a 5-7 point scale, allowing participants to indicate how much they agree or disagree with a statement. This method assumes that attitudes can be measured and ranked. It uses ordinal data with two extreme points and a neutral point, making it simple to complete.

### Continuous Measurement Scale

Allows for fractional amounts/decimals, which make sense in this context.

### Discrete Scale

Only fixed amounts can be

Read More## Statistical Analysis of Various Research Studies

## One-Sample t-test

### – A study was conducted to investigate whether the age of tourists in Katatonia has increased since 1995.

In a random sample of 250 tourists in Katatonia, the average age was 47.77 years (s = 15.41 years). This is higher than the average age of 45 years recorded in 1995, and a one-sample t-test shows that this difference in mean age is significant, *t*(249) = 2.84, *p* = .005. The 95% confidence interval indicates that since 1995 the average age of tourists has increased

## Assessment Tools for Literacy and Cognitive Development in Children

## Tests

### 1. Basic Functions Test – PFB

#### Authors

Neva Milicic and Olga Berdicewski (1974)

#### Objective

To assess the degree of maturity reached by the child to start learning reading and writing. Establishing a prognosis with regard to the time the child could delay the acquisition of reading and writing. Organize classes for children with differential immaturity.

#### Addressee

Primarily children who have completed kindergarten or newly initiated 1st grade.

#### Structure

Consists of 8 subtests: copying figures, visual memory,

Read More## Regression Analysis: A Guide to Modeling Predictive Relationships

## Regression

Regression is a well-known statistical technique used to model the predictive relationship between several independent variables (DVs) and one dependent variable. The objective is to find the best-fitting curve for a dependent variable in a multidimensional space, with each independent variable being a dimension. The curve could be a straight line, or it could be a nonlinear curve. The quality of fit of the curve to the data can be measured by a coefficient of correlation (*r*), which is

## Simple Linear Regression

BIOS 7020: Introductory Biostatistics II Fall 2018

Hanwen Huang, Ph.D.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics

College of Public Health University of Georgia huanghw@uga.edu

Data Summaries (Mean, Median, . . .) Introduction to Probability

Inference for one sample problem: estimates, CIs and tests for

continuous response: mean binary response: proportion

Inference for two sample problem: estimates, CIs and tests for

continuous response: mean binary response: proportion

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## Sampling Methods and Concepts: A Comprehensive Guide

## Sampling Methods and Concepts

### Sampling Error

Any difference between the characteristics of a sample and the characteristics of a population. The larger the sampling error, the less representative the sample.

### Target Population

A set of elements larger than or different from the population sampled and to which the researcher would like to generalize study findings.

### Representative Sample

A sample that “looks like” the population from which it was selected in all respects that are potentially relevant

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