The role of wetlands as a water resource: A wetland is an area of land with soil that are permanently flooded. It includes freshwater marshes (e.g. Macquarie Marshes in Australia), bogs (e.g. Strangmoor Bog in USA) and swamps (e.g. The Everglades in Florida USA) Wetlands are very important water resource as they provide many ecosystem services. There are marine coastal, inland and artificial types, subdivided into 30 categories of nature wetland and 9 human-made ones such as reservoirs, barrages

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Gene Expression

the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins

What situation did Archibald Garrod suggest caused inborn errors of metabolism?

Genes dictate phenotypes through enzymes that catalyze specific chemical reactions in the cell

Describe one example Garrod used to illustrate his hypothesis

Alkaptonuria: urine is black because it contains the chemical alkapton, which darkens upon exposure to air

State the hypothesis formulated by George Beadle while studying eye color mutations in

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According to Arrian’s Campaigns of Alexander, Alexander once said “I do not fear and army of lions led by a sheep, but I do fear an army of sheep lead by a lion”. This famous quote illustrates very clearly Alexander the Great’s vision of leadership. It suggests that he saw leadership as an essential ingredient in military strategy. The lion he refers to is clearly representative of himself and the sheep of his obedient and loyal troops. Alexander’s desire for glory, willpower and absolute

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-Layering determined by the differences in both chemical composition and physical properties

-On basis of chemical composition: earth has three layers:

  • core (dense inner sphere)

    • Radius 3500 km, 95% iron+ 5% nickel

    • Inner core (solid) we know it’s solid because both p-waves and s-waves pass through it

    • Outer core (liquid) we know it’s liquid because p-waves pass through it but s-waves cannot

  • Mantle (less dense) 2900 km made of rock-peridotite

    • Lower mantle 2400 km (solid)(bottom)

    • Asthenosphere 400 km (weak/

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Temperature: Average energy of molecules or atoms in a material – Kinetic energy of a substance. Heat: Total energy of molecules or atoms in a material,You can have a large amount of heat but low temperatures Can have high temperatures but little heat Latent heat: The amount of heat required to completely change a quantity of water from phase A to phase B with no corresponding change in temperature. “Latent” means “hidden” Residence timesResidence time of a species = mass (or volume) in

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1.2 levels evolution: 1. Adaptation

2. Speciation

2.5 agents of evolutionary change: 1. mutation

2. gene flow

3. non-random mating

4. genetic drift

5. selection

3.Adaptation: evolution within species; previous stuff

4.Adaptive radiation: rapid evolution of diversely adapted species from a common ancestor

- occurs when a species enters a new habitat or niche

5.Aging: Ordered sequence in layers of rock relative age of fossils

6.agriculture in artificial selection: rusts from generations of humans selection

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