Groundwater is water held under the surface in the phreatic (saturated zone) beneath the water table. Phreatic zone is the permanently saturated solid rocks and sediments. Groundwater may take as long as 20,000 years to be recycled. Therefore, groundwater is considered a non-renewable resource. Groundwater is important company of the global hydrological cycle and is the world’s largest store of freshwater, storing over 90% of the total supply. Groundwater is stored in aquifers and artesian basins.

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Biogeography of the Earth

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The distribution of plants and animals (or flora and fauna) is related to the variation in climate, soils, and topography on Earth. Over time, plants and animals have occupied and adapted to the particular environmental conditions in which they live. The giant saguaro cactus, for example, stores water in fleshy stems to nourish itself in the hot desert, while the heavy, shaggy coat of the musk oxen helps protect it from the cold arctic wind. In this chapter you will

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Lifelines of national economy

I. Roadways :

India has one of the largest road networks in the world. Its importance can be viewed.

(i) Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines
(ii) Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
(iii) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
(iv) It is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
(v) It provides door to door

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EASILY, OFTEN, ONLY, FROM BOTH ENDS: This verb participates in the MIDDLE ALTERNATION because it allows both the transitive variant NP1 (Agent) V NP2 (Patient) and the intransitive variant/ middle construction NP2 (Agent) V PP/AdvP which receives a non-eventive, generic, habitual or potential interpretation. Moreover, it is possible bc the DO of the transitive variant undergoes a change of state and is affected (its physical properties change bc of the process described by the verb), which

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Humanistic text (linked to the study of human beings and their social activities, arts and culture.
Features: Subjective, persuasive intent (q arguments defending the issuer dl ideas, abstraction and speculative character, language functions (rprsntativa, aplat, mtalingüistica, expressive and poetic), Indigo (specific terminology)
Types of humanistic text:
“The recipient: Divulgativo specialized academic
“Canal d transimision: lecture, discussion)
-Intention of the sender (descriptive, instructive, Read More


* Feng Shui – the practice of positioning objects, gravesites, buildings to achieve positive effects based on the belief in yin and yang and the flow of chi, that is air or breath
* Five Classics – the collection of five ancient Chinese books used by Confucianism for study. They were written or edited by Confucius
* Four Books – During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the accepted curriculum to be studied and passed in order to hold civil office.
* Goma – fire ceremony
* Harakiri – Ritual suicide by disembowelment
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