Renewable resources, together with inexhaustible resources (sunlight, wind, salty water…) are fundamental because their existence and renewal depend on rational use. Examples are land and forests.

Fertile soil is one of the most important because agriculture and livestock form the basis of the global food supply, and overexploitation can use it up. Excessive use of pesticides, fertilisers and inappropriate crops make the soil less fertile, or make land disappear altogether (desertification,

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  Birth and fertility rates
The birth rate is the number of births in a population in a specific period. It is measured using the crude birth rate (CBR). The world birth rate is now 20 per 1,000 (‰), but
 the figure varies according to a country’s level of development.
 The total fertility rate (TFR) is an estimate of the average number of children that a woman has during her
  lifetime (age 15-49).
A minimum of 2.1 children per woman allows generational replacement to take place. But in developed

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política de mierda

Elements that make up a state: citicents, territory, branches of the government; legislative(makes the laws)  , judicial (ensures that laws are obeyed), executive (applies the laws); laws. The functions of a state: international functions, national security, economic well-being, social services; welfare state: guarantees the economic and social well-being of its citizens. International relations between states: based on cooperation: polítical, economic, military, cultural. conflicts economic,

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Groundwater is water held under the surface in the phreatic (saturated zone) beneath the water table. Phreatic zone is the permanently saturated solid rocks and sediments. Groundwater may take as long as 20,000 years to be recycled. Therefore, groundwater is considered a non-renewable resource. Groundwater is important company of the global hydrological cycle and is the world’s largest store of freshwater, storing over 90% of the total supply. Groundwater is stored in aquifers and artesian basins.

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Biogeography of the Earth

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The distribution of plants and animals (or flora and fauna) is related to the variation in climate, soils, and topography on Earth. Over time, plants and animals have occupied and adapted to the particular environmental conditions in which they live. The giant saguaro cactus, for example, stores water in fleshy stems to nourish itself in the hot desert, while the heavy, shaggy coat of the musk oxen helps protect it from the cold arctic wind. In this chapter you will

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Lifelines of national economy

I. Roadways :

India has one of the largest road networks in the world. Its importance can be viewed.

(i) Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines
(ii) Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
(iii) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
(iv) It is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
(v) It provides door to door

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