-Layering determined by the differences in both chemical composition and physical properties

-On basis of chemical composition: earth has three layers:

  • core (dense inner sphere)

    • Radius 3500 km, 95% iron+ 5% nickel

    • Inner core (solid) we know it’s solid because both p-waves and s-waves pass through it

    • Outer core (liquid) we know it’s liquid because p-waves pass through it but s-waves cannot

  • Mantle (less dense) 2900 km made of rock-peridotite

    • Lower mantle 2400 km (solid)(bottom)

    • Asthenosphere 400 km (weak/

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Temperature: Average energy of molecules or atoms in a material – Kinetic energy of a substance. Heat: Total energy of molecules or atoms in a material,You can have a large amount of heat but low temperatures Can have high temperatures but little heat Latent heat: The amount of heat required to completely change a quantity of water from phase A to phase B with no corresponding change in temperature. “Latent” means “hidden” Residence timesResidence time of a species = mass (or volume) in

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1.2 levels evolution: 1. Adaptation

2. Speciation

2.5 agents of evolutionary change: 1. mutation

2. gene flow

3. non-random mating

4. genetic drift

5. selection

3.Adaptation: evolution within species; previous stuff

4.Adaptive radiation: rapid evolution of diversely adapted species from a common ancestor

- occurs when a species enters a new habitat or niche

5.Aging: Ordered sequence in layers of rock relative age of fossils

6.agriculture in artificial selection: rusts from generations of humans selection

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1.What are instincts for humans? Are they very common for humans?

An instinct is a fixed (rigid and predictable) pattern of behavior that is not acquired by learning and is likely to be rooted in genes and the body.

2.Maslow’s hierarchy of needs pyramid

Self transcendence needs: nedd to find meaning and indentity beyond the self.

Self.actualization needs: need to live up to our fullest aand unique potential.

Esteem needs: eed for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and Independence; need for recognition

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Consheft: a diver who lives and operates both inside and outside a submarine refuge for an extended period

Alvin: is a manned deep-ocean research submersible owned by the United States Navy and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts

A water bottle: is a container that is used to hold water, liquids or other beverages for consumption.

. Reversing thermometer: oceanographic device for measuring underwater temperature and pressure.

 Aluminaut: was the

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 -Pine = Tavern. Squared.      Board = Game house.      Donkey = bakery. 


 1.Ex libris:

Small print or decorative label pasted into a book , often on the inside font cover , to inmate its owner. Abstract , simple and modern symbols that move beyond evocation of the professional activity. Artistic vocation linked to an individual professional activity , and not to a collective (guilds) In Germany (1575) the emperors opened the first office of registered trade marks. Bussines

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