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Name of the Case: Lotus Case
Party of the Case: (France vs. Turkey, PCIJ, 192)
Fact of the Case:

In this Case a French ship named Lotus and a Turkey ship Boz Kourt had a clash with at clash, each other in the open sea. For that clash, Boz Kourt Sank and some crews died. After that when Lotus reached in Istanbul, Turkey arrested Demos, a crew of that ship and also captured the ship Lotus and also ask to pay compensation.
Then France told Turkey to free the ship Lotus but Turkey refused to make the ship
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Untitled 4

1. Introduction:
Fundamental rights are the basic rights of the citizens. in the constitution of 1973 the list of fundamental right has been given and it has also been clarified that any law repugnant to these fundamental rights will be considered null and void. every democratic state recognizes the fundamental rights of its citizens.
2. Relevant provisions
Articles 8-28
3. Objective resolution as part of the constitution:

The principles and provisions set out in the objectives resolution , objectives Read More


SOCIALIZATION:A process through which the individuals of a society or culture learn and internalize a combination of rules, values, and ways of perceiving reality. It gives individuals the capacities to develop themselves in the social interaction with other individuals.
  • Externalization: the social order is a human product for two reasons:

genesis: the past was constructed by people.

- existence: the current order can only exist if

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Equity clean hands

1. Introduction:
The person seeking relief must not himself guilty of illegal or immoral conduct with regard to the same transaction which would disentitle him to any assistance of the court. the court of equity will take into consideration, the personal conduct of the plaintiff in the transaction in dispute and if he had not sought the help of the court with clean hands, court will refuse to grant him relief.
2. Meaning:
It means that the plaintiff not only must be prepared to do

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Cheat Sheat

define decision problem *specify research question

*establish research objective *benefits of expected

information = report. Types of data: primary, secondary

(internal & external), customer knowledge. QUALITATIVE

RESEARCH = primary exploratory research, subjective in

nature. Advantages = cheaper, no better way to

understand in-depth motivations & feelings, can improve

efficiency of quantitative research. Limitations = many

success and failures based on small differences, not

necessarily representative

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equity acts in personam

1. Introduction:
The court of equity always enforced its decree in personam. the court orders the decree of the court of equity do not directly operate to transfer legal right from the defendant to the plaintiff, but is of nature of personal command on the defendant and it is effected through his personal obedience. if he fails to obey the order of court of equity he is arrested and imprisoned.
2. Meaning:
Equity binds the conscience of a person do which is required by the court.

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