Q2. Define Jurisprudence and explain the various kinds of jurisprudence. (2003),(2002),

The word jurisprudence is derived form the latin word ” jurisprudential” which means knowledge of law or skill in the law. Jurisprudence is a study of the fundamental legal principles. It may described as any thought or writing about law. Jurisprudence is been classified into different branches according to their approaches.
Definition Of Jurisprudence:
According To Austin
” Jurisprudence is a philosophy

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law notes


Business organisations & agency

• Partnerships & companies contract through agents.

• Partners can be agents of the partnership; directors agents of the company

• In most cases agents will have actual authority.

• If no authority then ostensible authority may apply.


• Not 4 profit 4 members.

• Types:
1. Unincorporated (> 2 members)
 liability 2 outsiders uncertain

2. Incorporated (> 5 members)
 Registered

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CT Quiz 2

Contracts: Requires an intention to create legal relations. Whereas torts arise from legal duties. Reasonable person test, objective test. Did parties intended to create a legally enforceable agreement? Reasonable expectations allows planning and efficiency. Oral or Written. Desire to create legal relations (mutual agreement) established through (Offer, acceptance and consideration by parties with capacity) Parties to a contract are: Offeror and Offeree. Once offer accepted, contract formed and

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1. Politics: The process of deciding who benefits in society and who does not.

2. Efficacy: Citizen’s belief that they have the ability to achieve something desir- able and that the government listens to people like them.

3. Civic Engagement: Individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern.

4. Political Engagement: Citizen actions that are intended to solve public prob- lems through political means.

5. Government: The institution that creates and implements

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Franco took control of Spain since the moment on which they won the war until his death. This government was a forty-year dictatorship after a three-year war that destroyed the country.

In the 60s decade the “economic miracle” brought welfare (a very good situation), but with the economic development, citizens started mobilizing asking for more freedom. Franquist government´s answer was to harden repression.

Finally, franconism entered in decadence at the same time that his life was ending.


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An overview of Europe’s film industry

EU film landscape is characterised by the strong presence of Hollywood productions  In 2013 US held a share of 70% of the EU market

What makes the major US powerful vertical integration (spanning from production to distribution)

To face the financing challenges facing EU film companies  film-support schemes from 2009 for 2.1 billion euros (excluding tax incentives and interventions by publicly funded banks and credit institutions)

European film industry is

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