Geography of Britain: Bristish isles: group of about 5000 islands off the northwest cost of mainland Europe. The highest island is Great Britain which consists of England, Wales and Scotland. The next island is Ireland, which is made up of northern Island (Ulster) and the Irish Republic (Eire). Great Britain and Northern Ireland form the United Kingdom.

The United Kingdom: Great Britain is a geographical expression, the United Kingdom is a political expression. The British Isles today are shared by two separate and independent states. The Republic of Ireland, with its capital is Dublin and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The island of Great Britain contains three nations: England, Scotland and Wales. Wales became part of the UK by the 16th century. Scotland join in 1707. The United Kingdom is a name was introduced in 1801 when Ireland was united with GB, Ireland became independent of London in 1922.

Britain and the World: In 1920 the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world´s land surface. Today the Empire was developed into 2 voluntary association of over fifty independent states. The association began when Britain´s older colonies (Australia,Canada,New Zealand and South Africa) became independent nations. The dismounting of the Empire was a gradual process that    right up until 1962. Today Britain was only fourteen ´dependant territories´ which relay on Britain for their defense. The Queen is heat of the commonwealth. She is also recognized as head of state in 18 countries though     her title she has real little power. The modern commonwealth includes republics and other monarchies in addition to states headed by the Queen.

Multicultural Britain: After WW2 Britain looked like a prosperous and friendly country for an immigrants worker. All commonwealth citizens were free to enter the country and look for work. However since the inmigration set of 1862, successive governments had introduced regulations to restrict the number of inmigratients. The percentage of non-whites in Britain increased quite rapidly between 1945 and the end of 1970s. The 2001 censes shows that it had reached 10% by then. Ethnic memorities are concentrated in the cities. Racial discrimination and poor living conditions were contributed to racial violence. Despite the Race Relations Act set of 1976 which was designed to promote equality of opportunity for people of all races.

Religion in a multicultural country: Is Britain a Christian country? Only a 13% of the English population is a member of the church. Membership of Christianism is falling while membership of other religious is missing.

The main religious groups: CHRISTIANS: anglicans, a third of the population. Catholics, a 10% of the population. Non comformists: protestant: Presbyterians,baptists and Methodists. Pentecostalists. NOS-CHRISTIANS: Muslims, 2%. Hindus, 1%. Jews, 2per cent of the community in Europe. Silks, Buddhist and other minor groups strongly represented. NO RELIGION: nearly    the population of GB.

Britain and Europe: The European Union: Britain joined the European Union in 1973 under 2 consevative governments. Britain was the sixth country to join with a membership of unlimited  duration. In accord to the treaty of name, Britains memberships has not always been easy. There have been arguments over financial and agricultural policies.

Post-War Reconstruction: Labour´s triumph: WW2 was a great class leveler. Under Prime Minister Clement Attlee´s lead, the UK nationalized the railways, coal, steel, shipbuilding, gas and electricity industries. Extended social services provided by the state with such things as unemployment insurance, sickness and old ages a weekly benefit for minimum needs and free medical healthcare for everyone (WELFARE STATE- NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE)

NATO ( north atlantic treaty organization ) India and Pakistan, together with a number of other former colonies were finally granted independence, as Britain made the painful decision of turning its back on its former Empire to strengthen ties with Europe. (BRITAIN´S FOREIGN POLICY AFTER WAR)

The affluent society: A period of economic growth and prosperity under 3 consecutive governments. During 1950 there was a period of massive growth in the private sector and wages increased by 40% in real terms. By the 1960´s production was beginning to slow while wages and prices continued to rise. Freezing wages as a cure enabled labour to win the 1964 elections. Abroad, the British Empire had been almost completely dismantled, generally very peacefully, with most of the main independent colonies joining the commonwealth. The decline of Britain as a world power was highlighted.