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Apparently unaware of Smeaton’s work, the same principle was identified by Frenchman Louis Vicat in the first decade of the nineteenth century. Vicat went on to devise a method of combining chalk and clay into an intimate mixture, and, burning this, produced an “artificial cement” in 1817[14] considered the “principal forerunner”[3] of Portland cement and “…Edgar Dobbs of Southwark patented a cement of this kind in 1811.”[3]

In Russia, Egor Cheliev created a new binder by mixing lime and

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