India’s Political Landscape: Foreign Relations, Emergency Controversies, and Coalition Politics

India’s Foreign Relations with Pakistan

A Complex History

India and Pakistan share a turbulent history marked by conflicts, territorial disputes, and occasional attempts at reconciliation. The partition of British India in 1947 created these separate nations, leading to ongoing tensions, particularly over the Kashmir region.

Conflicts and Diplomatic Efforts

The Kashmir issue has fueled several wars and skirmishes. Despite these challenges, diplomatic initiatives like the Shimla Agreement and Lahore

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Legislative Process in Pakistan: From Bill to Act

Legislation in Pakistan

The Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), consisting of the National Assembly, Senate, and President, holds the primary responsibility for legislation in Pakistan.

Types of Bills

There are four main types of bills:

  1. Government Bills: Introduced by a minister and passed by a simple majority.
  2. Private Member’s Bills: Introduced by any member of Parliament and passed by a simple majority.
  3. Constitution Amendment Bills: Require a two-thirds majority vote in both Houses to amend the Constitution.
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Key Features of the 1956 and 1962 Constitutions of Pakistan

Key Features of the 1962 Constitution of Pakistan

Pakistan gained independence in 1947 after significant sacrifices. Initially, the Government of India Act 1935 served as the governing document. However, Pakistan’s constitutional history has been turbulent. The second constitution, enacted in 1962, was drafted by a team appointed by Ayub Khan and enforced abruptly. It lasted until 1969 when martial law was imposed.

Salient Features:

(i) Written and Rigid: The 1962 Constitution was a comprehensive written
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Trademark Registration in Pakistan: A Comprehensive Guide

What is a Trademark?

The Trade Marks Ordinance 2001 defines a trademark as any mark capable of being represented graphically that can distinguish the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. A sign can include a letter, word, name (including personal name), signature, figurative element, numeral, device, brand, heading, label, ticket, aspect of packing, shape, color, sound, or any combination of these features.

Essential Features of a Trademark

  1. Distinctiveness: It must
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Pakistan’s Interim Constitution of 1972: A Bridge to Democracy

Pakistan’s Interim Constitution of 1972

A Bridge to Democracy

The Interim Constitution of 1972 was a provisional document adopted by the National Assembly of Pakistan on April 17th and enforced on April 21st, 1972. It served as a guideline for the country’s administration until the permanent Constitution of 1973 came into effect on August 14th, 1972.


Following the 1971 war and the resignation of President Yahya Khan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto assumed power amidst a state of emergency. While Bhutto

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