CHEMICAL EVOLUTION:chemical evolution refers to the processes that created the molecules that make up living things (biomolecules), and then formed structures called protocells, which exhibited a certain organisation and were separated from the environment by membranes.


  1. They introduced the gases Oparin believed existed in the primitive atmosphere into a chamber.

  2. Then they ran electric currents through it to simulate the energy from lightening.

  3. The products created by the

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  • •The CEO of Gulf Italia could probably justify paying a bribe to Italian government officials if he embraced a ____ ethical framework.


  • When a company creates a _____ in a foreign country, it makes a direct investment to establish a business that it solely owns and controls there

wholly owned subsidiary

  • Which of the following is NOT true about Whole Foods?

Workers are encouraged to form unions

  • According to the ______, “the business of business is business.”

Friedman Doctrine

  • According to management
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Chapter 5 — Community

On tech addiction and how it is compromising genuine human connection and community, Harari makes the point that it is easier than ever to talk to his cousin in Switzerland but it is harder to talk to his husband over breakfast because he constantly looks at his smartphone instead of at him.

Chapter 6 — Civilization

10,000 years ago, humankind was divided into countless isolated tribes where we knew no more than a few dozen people. With each passing millennium, these tribes

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company 4

First computer 1940-1956 systems used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. These computers were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, the first computers generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve

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Q # 1. The potential is constant throughout a given region of space. Is the electric field zero or non zero in

this region? Explain.

Ans. The electric field intensity is described by the relation:

According to the relation, the electric field is negative gradient of electric potential. If the electric

potential is constant throughout given region of space, then change in electric potential , hence .

Q # 2. Suppose that you follow an electric field line due to a positive point charge. Do electric field

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·Open system: system that exchanges ENERGY and MATTER with the outside

·Closed system: system that exchanges only ENERGY with the outside

·Isolated system: system that doesn’t exchange anything with the outside

·Transfer: movement of energy from one place to another

·Transformation: when the energy changes from one form to another

·1st Law of Thermodynamics: energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changes from one form to another

·2nd Law of Thermodynamics: entropy

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