Optimizing Fruit Tree Production: Apple, Pear, Peach, Cherry, Hazelnut, Walnut, Almond

Fruiting Bud Apple? Mixed bud: you have a cone with both a vegetative part in the bottom and a reproductive meristem, in the top, which produces inflorescence (“scion”).

Cultivars  in the world? Golden delicious, red delicious and Gala.  

 East Europe?tan- johnagold, Idared and Gala. Cv in US? Honeycrisp, it is crispy sweet and subacid, resistant to scab. Which undergoes a process controlled by a consortium, thus the growers have royalties and commitment to the consortium cvs warm areas?red Delicious (the Goldensunburn) and Gala cvs over-coloring issues?gala and Fuji(fovered with wax to protect the color): many sports of them been selected to improve their color rootstocks for vigor control?  are B9(tolerance to winter temps), M27, M9 and M26(the most dwarfing rootstock). M26 is the most vigorous. Which rootstock  replant disease? G series (G30, G11; selected specif) and the Merton793. 

Which rootstock  wholly aphid resistance?MM series. MM 106, MM 111. 

 dwarfing rootstocks,  fruit quality? is M9, since it combines a reduction in the vigor with an increase in the fruit size

 dwarfing rootstocks, sensitive to winter cold?M7 and M9, while B9 is much more tolerant.

 range of t damage flowers at full bloom. start to be damaged is below -2°C, serious damages (= 90% kill) occur at -4°C.

 Solaxe and vertical axi?TS lies on the penetration of light inside the canopy: in the Solaxe there’s an empty space which allows full light radiation, while the vertical system is full of branches (not removed in pruning) which reduces the light penetration. Why Y trellis poorly used? ,  one of the most efficient systems to intercept light, great cost from the point of view of trellising, training and maintenance (they require a lot of handwork for pruning and canopy management)pruning training in apple?  are bending rather than cuts, to promote the growth of the tree and the formation of flowers at the same time. Thinning cut or heading cuts?It depends on the different architecture of apple cv: if it is a spur type, heading cut is preferred to promote the regrowth of extension shoots;  brindle type cv, thinning cut is required to open a bit the canopy and increase the light interception.

hich is the leaf area  fruit yield in ? is the one close to the bearing part: if a cv bears mainly on spurs, it has a poor leaf area; it the cv is bearing not very much on spurs, the fruit yield will be higher. 

 strategies flower chemical thinning?  are mainly PGR (Plant Growth Regulators), ?, and hormonal-like substances, for ex ethylene-releasing compounds and cytokinins, which decrease the amount of flowers and small fruits (

 alternative to chemical thinning? mechanical thinning,  only on flowers (if fruits, you can have damages), or of the shaded-days strategy(this is too costly and not commonly used), causing a consistent reduction flowers.

 factors affecting apple Kc? . It is specific for each group of speciest can vary depending on the phenological phase. The presence of ground cover and or the winter frost occurrence ,the growth stage,Irrigation frequency . During the crop’s germination and establishment most of the evaporation occurs as evaporation from the soil surface. If the surface is wet rate is greater. As the foliage develops evap decreases and transpir increases.

water potential threshold ?by looking at the growth base on the stem water potential. We don’t want to have too much fruit growth, but also not much shoot growth. So keep the WP that will allow us to have certain reduction of shoot growth but also a wanted amount of fruits. Each week we can verify the water status.(-1 to -1.5),n overfertilization in apple? You will have a reduction annual yield. Because have high vegetative growth and higher competition for the growth and less formation of fruits and bud and more of vegetative organs. Leads to a loss of fertilizer, then it increases the shoot growth causing overshading and RH inside the canopy (=more risk of issues  color, the rasseting), and lastly issues in the preservability 

CA  storage? O2 is reduced, decreases the rate of respiration and thus increases the preservability of the fruit. last of storage for apple? is around 9 months. The longest storage-time cv are Granny Smith (7-11mo), Fuji and Gala (9mo).

fruiting bud in pear ? mixed bud, like in apple. We start the winter with the dormant bud, when we have the swollen bud, bloom, petal fall, fruit set and fruit growth. parthenocarpy in pear?is the production of seedless fruits without fertilization. You don’t need pollination to have a fruit set. It is a problem because the lack of hormones affects the shape and the size. The fruits are smaller, and the shape is more cylindrical. But in years when you fail to have pollinations when the bees are more attracted by cover crops it can be a resource of having fruits even without the pollination. We can spray gibberellins to promote their growth and you can have a sort of yield back up. cultivars in US bartlet (called Williams in eu , most important in california) , d’Anjou (most improtant for Washington state as it is resistant to fire blight), Bosc. cultivars in Italy?  Coscia(most important early cultivar), santa maria, William William rossa, conference, abate fetel, decana del comizio, kaiser, passa crasana. New cultivars such as Tosca, that is a breed between coscia and Williams and has improved size compared to coscia. . carmen The main cv in Italy are Coscia and Santa Maria as early cv; William and William Rossa as summer cv; Conference, Abate Fetel and Kaiser as autumn cv and Passacrassana in winter.

Early pears? have to be consumed freshly. Small in size. Then the color which is yellow for coscia and consumers like red. And the important point is the preservation. The storage can’t be more than 2-3 weeks. 

The main issues Coscia (the reference cv), Tosca and Santa Maria (more productive), are the productivity, the size and the color of the fruit and the preservability (e.g. Coscia in particular is quite susceptible).

Cv incompatible with quince? William has poor affinity with quince. Kaiser has poor affinity to quince.(compatibility of quince is important, because quince is another species we have several.??) passsa crassana hasa good affinity for quicne and long lasting storage. The problem was that the taste of Passa crasssana haervested early was bad. rootstocks reduced vigor are the ones derived from Quince, so SYD, MC and BA29.

Which rootstock series is recommended for contrasting chlorosis in pear? 

The rootstocks chlorosis are seedling or clonal rootstocks, which are quite effective and tolerant to chlorosis in alkaline soils, while the Quince ones are very susceptible.W.hich rootstocke to low temperatures? Quince, while more tolerant rootstocks are seedling and Pyrus communis.

 dwarfing rootstocks  best fruit quality?SYDO and BA29, in terms of  size

 Why Adams in Belgium? it is fairly compatible with Conference and considered the standard since it provides the best fruit quality and high yield efficiency rootstock waterlogging in pear? Quince (compared to the susceptible Pyrus c.)spindle and palmette system, spindle system is more efficient because it has a higher canopy volume