Industrial Revolution: Causes, Development, and Consequences

Industrial Revolution: Causes

increase in agricultural production due to changes in agriculture. Triennial rotation was substituted by the Norfolk four-course system. Livestock increased so the nutrition improved. Changes in land ownership: large English landowners pushed to turn common land into private property. End of catastrophic mortality. Population growth. Modernisation of transport. Growth of financial means. Abundance in coal and other raw materials. Wealthy through their economic activities.


Mechanization: Artisanal workshops almost disappear. Factories: large buildings with many workers and machines, substitution of manual labour with machines powered by a new energy source, Production was faster. Replaced skilled and creative labour with routine and unskilled labour.

Textile: Increase in demand for cotton fabrics, Change in energy source. Power loom: steam powered weaving machine and self-acting spinning mule: spinning machine.

  • Metallurgy: Iron melted in ovens powered by coal, Steam engine: machine using steam power obtained by burning coal Machines were used to move the bellows that blew air into the blast furnace.

Transport: Steam boat: The first steamboats were riverboats with a large paddle wheels. Wasn’t used for boats until the invention of the iron hull. Countries improved their infrastructure, ports.

Railway: Developed when the locomotive was invented, The first railways were developed in Great Britain and transported goods, Railways were fully incorporated when