Felipe V: The War of succesion and consequences: 

 Carlos II died without children (last of Habsburg House). Before he died he had chose the Bourbon prince as his heir which is Felipe. Their family of Austria, Carlos of Habsburg reclaimed his Throne. 

 And because of that: Between 1701 and 1714 happened the War of succession. One part of spanish people (Castilla) supported Felipe V (Bourbon) and the other part supported Carlos VI (Habsburg). The end of the war was the Peace of Utrecht (1713). Felipe V took the crown of Spain but on the condition that he would never inherit the crown of France.

 Felipe V consequences:

Spain lost its European territories.Political reforms: 
Decretos de Nueva Planta (centralised all differents powers in Madrid)
Battle of Almansa
Regalist policies (enmity with the pope)
Lost Gibraltar (Utrecht)

 Fernando VI and Carlos III:
Fernando VI didn’t have children and succeeded the throne on his stepbrothers Carlos III.

Between 1759 to 1788 he made several reforms: 
 Carlos III die and his son Carlos IV get the throne.

 Antes de la Guerra de independencia:

 Carlos IV was reigning with his wife and with Godoy as Secretary of State.

 Napoleon (Emperador frances) wanted to pass through Spain with his troops to conquest Portugal because they were not complying with the rule he had set that they could not trade with Great Britain. They signed a treaty with Spain to let them cross:Treaty of Fontainebleau (1807).Taking advantage of the fact that his troops were in Spain, he wanted to take the opportunity to conquer it as well.

 Godoy wanted to take over all the power of Spain and sending the kings away with the argument that they saw a possible exile to the American colonies in order to stay alone in Spain, but the people were not stupid and organized athe motin of Aranjuez (1808) that pursued the dismissal of Godoy and the abdication of Carlos IV in his son Fernando who became Fernando VII.

 In May 1808, Napoleon forced Fernando VII to abdicate to his father Carlos IV and this in turn to Napoleon who named his brother Joseph I King of Spain. This is known as the abdications of Bayonne (1808).

Independece War and Constitution: 

 In Spain, the attitude towards the French presented a division:

 “Afrancesados”: support Jose I (pepe botella) and his liberal ideas.“patriotas”: don’t support Jose I and support the exaltation of homeland and nationalism.

 2 of May 1808 starts the War: 

 On August 19, 1808, the Andalusian army, under the command of General Castaños, defeated the French in Bailén. It was their first defeat in Europe.

 Joseph I Bonaparte (1808-1813), placed on the throne of Spain by Napoleon, abandoned Madrid, and the French forces raised the siege of Gerona and Zaragoza. In this situation, the people resisted with guerrilla warfare, which involved the entire population in the harassment of the invaders and got Napoleon to retreat to France for a while.

 In 1812, Spain began with the help of British forces led by the Duke of Wellington a major offensive against the French troops, defeating them in Arapiles (Salamanca), which forced Joseph Bonaparte to flee Spain and the end of French domination.

 In 1810 the Central Junta was dissolved and a non-state Cortes was assembled in Cadiz to assume national sovereignty. 

Dominated by the liberals, the Cortes of Cadiz abolished the lordships and the Inquisition, torture and blood cleansing tests for access to public office.

 The Constitution of 1812 was the most important work of the Cortes of Cadiz:

-It was promulgated on March 19 of that year.

-It recognized national sovereignty, the division of powers and indirect suffrage.

-It represented the adaptation of liberal ideas to the Spanish situation, and served as a model for later constitutions, not only in Spain but also in other European countries. 

 In 1813, the Spanish-British army commanded by Wellington triumphed in the battles of Vitoria (July) and San Marcial (August). 

Napoleon withdrew his forces from Spain and, by the Treaty of Valençay, returned the throne to Ferdinand VII. (Manifesto of the Persians).

ABSOLUTISM: Sovereignty belongs to the king. He receives his right to govern directly from God/The king has absolute power and answers only to God and his conscience./The slogan of absolutism was ‘Everything for the people, nothing by the people’/The will of the king is law./Inequality in people is natural./Ideas are controlled through censhorship/The king controls economic life by granting monopolies and regulating production./The king controls economic life by granting monopolies and regulating production.

LIBERALISM: Sovereignty belongs to the nation. The people govern themselves through their representatives/Power is never absolute; there should be separation of powers./The right to vote is recognised; the people elect their representative parliament through suffrage./All citizens, including the king, must comply with laws, especially the Constitution or fundamental law./All men are equal in the eyes of the law/Freedom of the press is recognised./Separation of the Church and state.

The founding of the United States

The 13 British colonies of North America organised the first colonial insurrection. They then established the first government founded on principles of equality and freedom.

The American colonists were unhappy with Britain for not allowing them to send representatives to Parliament and for imposing commercial monopolies (tea) and taxes.

This decision caused a rebellion in Boston à the Boston Tea Party. In 1773, King George III sent an army to stop the rebellion.

To strengthen its position against Britain, delegates from the 13 colonies met and drafted the United States Declaration of Independence (4 July 1776) àstated the duty of a government to respect the rights of its people

After a long war and a defeat at Yorktown, Britain recognised the colonies’ independence (1783), and George Washington became the first president of the United States in 1789.

The United States constitution

The first Constitution in History (1787). It ensured the separation of powers. Established a republican government headed by an elected president {every four years → House of the Representatives (Congress)} + a federal system of government

Constitution completed with the Bill of Rights Freedom of religion, press, assembly, no one could be deprived of life or property without proper Court proceedings 

Manhood universal suffrage women, native american and slaves → couldn’t vote

The American Civil War (1861-1865

Slavery → main cause of the conflict. North States wanted to abolish it. South States opposed to the abolition à Cotton plantations + Try to create an independent slave state.

Abraham Lincoln → Leader of the liberal and industrialized North won the war àSlavery was abolished. Founder of the Republican Party

Factors that triggered the revolution

-Liberal ideas à Enlightenment had become popular amongst large segments of the population, even amongst the nobility and clergy. Criticism of absolutism. Separation of Powers. Equality before the law

-The example of the United States à Marquis de Lafayette, fought on the side of the colonists in the American War of Independence for French people. Some of the delegates who signed the Declaration of Independence, visited France frequently

-Economic crisisà The Seven Years’ War (France lost Canada) affected the economy. France had an enormous public debt. The court at Versailles did not reduce its spending on luxuries.  A large percentage of the Parisian population was poor and hungry.

-Inequality before the law à the nobility and clergy did not pay taxes. The middle class had to pay taxes and agreed with the people that the nobility did not generate any economic benefit for the nation.

-There was an atmosphere of great political unrest in Paris and the rest of France.

-Many propaganda pamphlets criticising the Old Regime were printed and distributed. The king and queen were criticised.

More than 25000 books of grievances → Citizens and peasants described their complaints and demands in these books.

14th July 1789 → the French Revolution started

Phases of the French Revolution

-The Estates General (1789)

o   Louis XVI called a consultative assembly of representatives of all three estates of the realm → to face the severe problems

o   They met at the Palace of Versailles to discuss whether the nobility should pay taxes

o   The Third Estate demanded that votes should no longer be counted by estate, but by head 

o   The Third Estate delegates formed the National Assembly and swore not to depart until France had a constitution.

– National Constituent Assembly (1789- 1791) 

o   The people of Paris revolted and stormed the Bastille prison 

o   The soldiers defending the prison opened the doors to the people 

o   The king could not dissolve the Assembly and it made important decisions, including the drafting of the 1791 Constitution

– Legislative Assembly (1791- 1792)

o   The absolutist powers of Austria and Prussia threatened to invade France

o   Different political groups formed in the Assembly 

o   Girondists, moderates who wanted a constitutional monarchy

o   Jacobins, radical liberals who wanted a republic.

– The Republic (1792-1795)

o   The Assembly declared the Republic and became the National Convention, taking control of the legislative and executive branches of power

o   The king was tried for high treason and executed by guillotine.

o   Under the leadership of Robespierre, leader of the Jacobins, the committee executed anyone suspected of being anti-revolutionary. This period was known as the Terror.

-The Directory (1795- 1799) and the Consulate (1799- 1804)

o   After Robespierre was executed by moderates, a government called the Directory was formed 

o   Abroad, revolutionary France won important military victories over Europe’s absolutist powers.

o   Its most prestigious general, Napoleon Bonaparte, led a coup in 1799 and took power, appointing himself Consul.