World War 2

Militarism: Build-up of armed forces to prepare for war.

Alliance: Agreement between countries to defend or fight together.

Imperialism: Belief of a country in building upa n empire and controlling less powerful countries.

Nationalist: Pride in a country, with people wanting to govern themselves or defend themselves.


1880 Need for market.

1882 British-Belgian alliance

1870 Franco-Prussian War (Alsace and Lorraine were given to German Empire.

1882 The Triple Alliance (G,AH,I)

1900 Navy. German were increasing their navy, so Britain was worried about that.

1904 French Fear. France (big army, poor navy), so allied with Britain.

1905 Russia thought they were very powerful.

        The Schlieffen Plan. Attack France quickly and then Russia.

1906 HMS Dreadnaughts. New battleship. Britain and Germany wanted that.

1906-1911 Gladir Crisis. France was going to invade Moroco. G entered – B and F better allies.

1907 The Triple Entente. F,B,R worried about the central powers.

1912-1913 Balkan War. Conflicts between Serbia and Ottoman Empire.


1. Description (image, colours, type of letter)

2. Explanation (connect to the historical context, period)

3. Interpretation (Intention of the poster)

          Explicit (the literal text)

          Implicit (The message behind)


Movement phase (1914) countries started fighting on Western and Eastern European fronts.

Trench warfare (1915-1917)

World phase (1916-1918) war extended to The Mediterranean, Africa and Asia.


– Trenches (both sides) – to cover

– Zeppelin (Germany) – to drop bombs

– Air attacks (G) – to drop bombs precisely

– U-boats (G) – to stop naval warships

– Tanks (B) – to move securely

– Steel helmet (both sides) – to protect better

– Uniforms (B)- to camouflage

– Camouflage (F) – not to be detected

– Recruitment (F and rest) – obligation to go to war



– 1917 Russian Revolution LT

– 1919 The Treaty of Versailles signed LT

– 1920-1936 Rise of Fascism in Italy LT

– 1924 Hitler writes “Mein Kampf” LT

– Oct 1929 Global depression LT

                (Wall St. crashes, they have to ask money back from Europe)

– Jan 1933 Hitler becomes chancelor of G. in a democratic way. LT

– 1933 Hitler begins to rebuild his army in secret (prohibited in Treaty of V.) ST

– Oct 1935 The League of Nations fails (because Italy conquered konkistatu Etiopia) ST

– Mar 1936 Rhineland was reoccupied by Germany ST

– July 1936 The Spanish Civil War ST

– 1939 Rome-Berlin Axis: Hitler-Mussolini Alliance ST

– Mar 1938 Anshluss (annexation of Austria into Germany) ST

– Sep 1938 The Munich Agreement (Sudetenland was given to Hitler) ST

– Mar 1939 Nazis invade Czechoslovakia ST

– Aug 1939 The Nazi-Soviet (non agression) Pact ST

– Sep 1939 Invasion of Poland TRIGGER EVENT

– Sep 1939 Britain declares war on germany.

– Sep 1939 The Second World War begins.


     – The Military Coup D’État (July 18,1936)

     – Battle of Madrid (August 1936-March 1917)

     – Franco “Caudillo” and “Generalísimo” (October,1936)

     – Setting up of the Eusko Jaurlaritza (October 7,1936)

     – The North Front (April 1937-October 1937)

     – Battle of the Ebro (July 1938-November 1938)

     – The End of the War (April 1, 1939)

Propaganda: is a biased form of communication, designed to spread information. The information is designed to make people feel a certain way

                    or to believe a certain thing and to influence their attitude. The propaganda strategy in the Spanish Civil War was very simple, direct

                    and repetitive.

Censorship: is to suppress communication or change certain events or remove information because it is conisedered wrong, harmful, sensitive, or

                   negative for the government or any other authority. This can be for different reasons:

          · Military censorship: to suppress relevant info. that could be used by the enemy to weaken the mood of the population or military positions.

          · Moral censorship: to supress relevant info. that is considered inappropriate for the audience. For example, pornography.

          · Political censorship: to supress relevant info. that the government considers could provoke rebellions or negative political circumstances.



     · Trigger event → Military coup d’état by some military personnel.

     · Short term (during 2nd Republic)

          – Radicalization of extreme political ideologies →Communists and anarchists promoting a revolution

                                                                               →Falangists promoted a dictatorship

          – Rise of opposing political ideologies → Controversy about Republican reforms

                                             · Which reforms? Universal suffrage, State secularism, Improvement in social services, Land reforms, Universal

                                                                       education, Basque and Catalonian autonomies.

                                             · Parties for → Republicans

                                                               → Socialists

                                             · Parties against → Anarchists and communists (wanted more redical reforms)

                                                                     → Right wing and upper-middle class (wanted more authoritatian government)

     · Long term (before 2nd Republic)

          – Political inestability (unestable governments, tensions as a result of asking more regional autonomy, political power of the Army).

          – Social problems (role of the Church, large illiteracy, marginalised groups).

          – Economic inequalities

               · Economy based on inefficient agriculture

               · Late and little industrialisation

               · Most lived in poverty

               · Great gap between poor and rich


     · Demographic

          – Birth rate sank

          – War casualities (people killed in war action and in bombings, people disappeared)

          – Exile

     · Social → Hardship (poverty, hunger, sickness…)

     · Political → Dictatorship (reforms abolished, repression (killed, imprissoned, concentration camps…)

                    → Divided society: winners-losers

     · Economic → Economic ressources destroyed (fields abandoned, factories)

                      → Lower GDP (Gross Domestic Product)