What are the two stages of development of the Greek Civilization

The brain is like a living sculpture, every time you learn something new, your brain is changing in various ways– 1. Neuronal Death, 2. Neuronal Pruning 3. Lateralization 4. Myelination 5. New neural connections (Brain isn’t fully mature until they are 20ish) 

Sensitive periods:

 is animal studies confirm that early, extreme sensory deprivation results in permanent brain damage and loss of functions, this verified the existence of of sensitive periods in brain development. (Example of kitten/children w/cornea issue and brain damage) –severe and permanent. General quality of the environment matters. They need the right stimulation for that sensitive period.

Social stimulation-

 no one is holding them, no one is talking to them — if this occurs the child will develop a insecure attachment.

Physical stimulation-

 when they are physically deprived of a certain stimulus, so that part of the brain does not develop.(girl that was raised by dogs & could not talk) 

Experience expectant brain stimulation:

 all of the kinds of stimulation that we are epigenetically receiving certain kind of stimulation in order for the brain to mature. (Relative to sensitive periods) –Play with them, love them, give affection, touch them. This is everything in the first two years.These are the NONNEGOTIABLES. 

Experience Dependent Stimulous:

 specific to family/culture. — our technology, changes their brains but in that specific way. This is not essential. (ex ;playing the violin) 
Too much stimulation can over whelm the infant. When this happens they just shut down. 

Breast feeding:

provides correct balance of fats and proteins. Evolves with the age of the child. Gives good bacteria for the babies norma floora. Helps digestion 

Nonorganic failure to thrive:

 the babies that died because they were not res cured by 6 months. 
Psychoanalytical belief  is that the breastfeeding experience is so essential and satisfying that babies are around the mother for love Secondary. 
Behavioral belief is that the mothers love and the feeding are both primary instincts (feeding and love are both their own instincts) Feeding is second to love though 

Bowlbys theory:

 explains that children come into the world biologically programmed to form attachments with others — because this will help them survive. He was very interested with Lorenz study of imprinting in ducks. (Babies are hardwired to love their caregivers. 

Stages of attachment:


Preattachment stage:

 birth-6w. –You cannot love unleaa you are aware of your ownself. Infants dont love the caregivers but they do exhibit attachment forming behaviors. And babies lure us in and are cute. Makes us want to love them conditionaless.

Attachment in the making:

 6w.-6-8m — The baby begins to have prefrance. They like to be held a certain way, apples>pears, etc…

Clear cut attachment;

 6-8m- 18-24m (There is an appreciation of the love)– Babies love mom, mom loves babies. Babies are sad when caregivers leave. Cannot communicate though.
Forming a reciprocal relationship:
 1 1/2y – 2 y– they can now communicate language. They understand the mother.

4 types of attachment:



 60% of pop. True in all cases– sad when leave, happy when back. These children are more sure of themselves and relationships. (promote- early of availability of caregiver, quality of care giving, babies characteristics, family context, including internal work model)


 about 10% of pop– baby gives mixed signals, begins to be clingy, punish and be comforted. (happens when there is an insecure care, mother might work shift work)


 about 15% of pop.– baby ignores/punishes the caregiver. Weary of the mother. Keeps their distance (could be formed by intrusive care. Meaning overwhelmed– they cant read their babies)


 15% of pop. — most insecure attachment. They have so little attachment to their parents, that they have no idea how to show it. Very poory developed. (parenting that is boardering on neglect. Or could just be inconsistent, maybe mother on drugs.

Erik Erikson:

 first three stages of psychosocial development:

Trust vs Mistrust:

 birth to 1y.


 attachment forms in other around the same period. Basic trust in other humans/in the world. Trust in their health.


no attachment. Feel like noone cares about their thoughts.

Autonomy vs Doubt(1 1/2y-2 1/2 y):



 toodlerhood. Useing secentences. Have their own thoughts and wills. Allow them to have some say.


 has to much freedom results in them feeling a lot of doubt.
But you do need to alow them to have free will in some circumstances.

Initiative vs Guilt(3y – 5 1/2 y):


 Everything going forward requires the ability to express their creativity. Very important stage. Dont corect the child, let them have a vivid imagination. 
General guidelines– Each stage encompases a universal psychological challenge. 2. Each stage is on a continuum. 3. Optimal resolution incorperates Most of the “good”quality and some of the “bad” 4. Each stage is a building block for the next!