MIDDLE AGES. RELIGIOUS VOCAL MUSIC: THE GREGORIAN CHANT. It is a type of music destined for the liturgy. It has a monodic texture and a single melodic line without instrumental. It uses a special notation by means of neumes symbols that approximately reflect the pitch and durantion of sound. The musical rhythm is free, determined by the expression and accentuation of the text to which it serves. There are 3 styles of singing depending on the relation between music and text: SYLLABIC (one note per syllable), NEUMATIC or ORNAMENTED (2 or 3 notes per syllable) and MELISMATIC or FLORID (more than 3 notes per syllable). SECULAR VOCAL MUSIC: MUSIC OF TROUBADOURS AND MINSTRELS. SEcular vocal music is represented by trobubadours. It was developed at the same time as religious music under the protection of Feudal Lords. Troubadours were poet-musicians, generally of noble birth. These were songs written in the vernacular languages of each area, whose main subjects were “Courtly love”. it is a type of vocal music with a monodic texture but with instrumental accompaniment. It makes uses of Gregorian modal scales. The songs of troubadours were collected in lusurioysly decorated song books. For example, cantigas de Santa Maria of Alfonso X the Wise. The BIRTH of polyphony. In the late 9th centyry, polyphony appeared in western music.THREE STAGES: PRIMITIVE POLYPHONY (9-12 th), ARS ANTIGUA (12-13th) and ARS NOVA (14th century). PRIMITIVE POLYPHONY is built impovising upon the base of Gregorian chant. The main forms of primitive polyphony are: ORGANUM (It is the oldest and most rudimantary) and MELISMATIC ORGANUM (vox organalis). ARS ANTIQUA, Music abandoned the Gregorian free rhythm and synchronizzing the diffetent voices of th polyphony. The most important musical centre of this period was the so called “Notre Dame School” in Paris. ARS NOVA. Polyphonic started liberating itself from the Gregorian chant in order to find a type of music closer to hummanity. Secular music became increasingly important, making room polyphonic songs like the canon, the ballad and the chanson. 
RENAISSANCE. 1.RELIGIOUS AND VOCAL MUSIC: 1)The Protestatian Reformation. In Germany. Martin Luther. The Chorale main musical form of his church. It is a simple composition, often based on popluar melodies. It is usually written for 4 voices and in German.1510. 2) The Englihs Reformation. In England. Henry VIII. 1534. Then antehem or Anglicam hymn for religious services. It is a composition similar to the motet, written for 4 voices and in English. 3) The Catolic Counter-REformation kept the Gregorian chant as the official singing of the church, but also develped polyphonic. The motet was the most important form of religious polyphony, in Latin and brief. The mass was a compound musical form, result of putting together  all the pieces of the liturgy
2.SECULAR VOCAL MUSIC: IN ITALY: MADRIGAL (Italian vocal form for 4 or 5 voices, with compound polyphony texture. The most representative composers were Orlando di Laso, Carlo Gesualdo, Claudio Monteverdi). IN FRACE: CHANSON (French vocal form with polyphonic texture and usually with instrumental accompaniment. The most representative composers were Josquin des Prez and Clement Janequin). IN SPAIN: ROMANCE (It is a narrative stropic song about historic and legendary matters or about social events. VILLANCICO (usually made up of 4 voices with simple homophonic texture, it follows a text structured in choruses and coplas. ENSALADA (It is a song composed for 4 or 5 voices that consists of mixing different generes. The most representative composers of Spanish secular music were Juan del Enzina, FRancisco de Peñalosa, Mateo Flecha “the Elder” and Juan Vázquez. 
3. INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC in RENAISSANCE: INSTRUMENTAL FORMS. mOST of instrumental forms ot the Renaissance respond to 3 basic types of composition: 1) Adapted pieces from vocal works. 2)Pieces based in improvisation and 3) Pieces based on variation. INSTRUMENTS.The concept of ORCHESTRA as a stable group didn´t exit in group music yet. Isntrument families were divided into 2 categories depending on sound power and not on their timbric or performing similarities: HAUT (loud) music: formed by instruments with great sound power. F.e. the shawm, sackbut, pipe and tabor.. BAS (quiet) music: formed by instruments of soft sound intensity. F.ethe vielle, rebec and other bowed strings, the lute and other plucked strings and the recorders.
4. DANCE IN THE RENAISSANCE. Dance was one of the favorite entertaiments of nobility. It can be: DANCE IN PAIRS and THE ORIGIN OF BALLET. Dance used to be presented in constrasting pairs, with a first dance of steps in a binary rhythm and slow tempo. One ot the most famous dance pairs was the combination of PAVANE and GALLIARD. Both ot them were written thematically related. The PAVANE was a procesional dance with slow and ceremonias binary rhythm. It usually had three parts. The GALLIARD was a lively dance with a ternary rhythm. THE FIRST BALLET IN HISTORY was the BALLET COMIQUE DE LA REINE, In Paris, in 1581, in the court Henry III in the wedding celebration between the duke Joyeuse and Margarida de Lorena. IT was the fisrt spectacle that combined music, poetry, decoration and dance on a single stage.