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Ancient Greece and Persian Empire Unit

16. How did democracy develop in ancient Greece?

After people drove the last tyrant out of power they developed a democracy nearly 50 years later.

17. What are the differences between Monarchy, Oligarchy, Tyranny, and Democracy? Which one is most effective and why?

Monarchy (2000 to 800 B.C.E.): One individual has the power to make political decisions in the hands of the king. In the time of their death, their power is passed down to their children. They ruled by force and punished people who disobeyed the laws or didn’t pay their taxes. Kings had councils of aristocrats to advise them The king lost power because aristocrats in many city states overthrew the monarchy and took the power for themselves.
Oligarchy (800 to 650 B.C.E): Few people have the power to make political decisions is in the hands of the Greek oligarchs. They ruled by passing laws that protected and increased their own wealth. They lived comfortable lives while the poor were required to work long hours in the fields. They lost power because the poor turned to leaders in the army. Those leaders overthrew the oligarchs.
Tyranny (650 to 500 B.C.E): One individual has the power to make political decisions is in the hands of a tyrant. There are no legal limits on tyrants’ power. A tyrant ruled by force, he was not always unpopular. He promised people more rights and more changes to help the poor. He lost power because he sometimes ruled harshly and ignored the needs of people in Athens. The people forced him out of power.
Democracy (500 to 400 B.C.E): The power to make political decisions is in the hands of all people, called citizens. The city had an assembly or lawmaking group. They ruled by having assemblies and vote on a new law or a proposal to go to war. Free men also ran the city’s day to day business. Not all Greeks thought democracy was a good idea because powerful speakers sometimes persuaded ordinary citizens to vote unwisely. Also decisions can change

18. What were the major similarities and differences between Athens and Sparta, in the areas of government, economy, education, and the treatment of women and slaves?

Government: Athens was a democracy, but only free men could participate in government. A group called Council of 500 met every day and ran the daily business. Proposed laws needed approval from a much larger group, the Assembly of Athens met every 10 days to debate issues and more. Sparta was primarily a military state and an oligarchy. They had the Council of Elders who made all the governing decisions. The Assembly in Sparta had limited powers and could only vote on laws suggested by the Council of Elders.
Economy: The economy of Athens relied on trade with other city-states and several foreign lands. Athenians exchanged goods at the agora. They traded honey, olive oil, silver, and more. They purchased lettuce, onions, and other foods. They also developed their own coins. The Spartan economy relied on farming and conquest. They depended on slaves (helots) and other noncitizens to provide for many of its needs. Sparta discourage trade, because they feared new ideas. They used heavy iron bars as currency.
Education: In Athens, boys were educated to be good citizens. Education balanced book learning and physical training. At 18, boys began their military training. Girls learned skills for managing the household. In Sparta, boys and girls were educated to protect the city-state. They highly valued discipline and strength. Spartan boys began their training at age 7 and served in the army until age 60.
Women and Slaves: In Athens, women and slaves had far fewer rights than men had. Women couldn’t own property or vote. Their greatest influence was in their homes. Some people were born into slavery, while others were forced into it as captives of war. Spartan women had more rights than other Greek women, such as owning property. Spartan slaves were people the Spartans had conquered. They treated the helots harshly so they wouldn’t revolt.

19. What factors influenced the outcome of the Greco-Persian Wars, and which one was most important and why?

The Ionian Revolt (499 B.C.E.): After the Athenians helped the Ionians, they left. To punish the Ionians for rebelling, the Persians destroyed the city of Miletus.  In 493 B.C.E., the Persians defeated the Ionians.
The Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.E.): The Persian king Darius sent a force to attack the Greek cities that helped the Ionian rebels. Even though the Athenians were outnumbered, they won because they had better weapons and military strategy. The Athenians attacked the Persians on three sides.
The Battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.E.): Darius’ son Xerxes, organized an invasion of Greece. The Spartans made their stand at Thermopylae. A Greek traitor showed the Persians a secret path in the mountains and were able to defeat the Spartans. They knew by knowing the geography of the land.
The Battle of Salamis (480 B.C.E.): Xerxes burned down Athens. The Athenians tricked the Persians to go in the narrow channel. The Greeks surrounded them and destroyed hundreds of Persian ships. The Greeks combined military strategy with their knowledge of coastal geography to defeat the Persians.
The Battle of Plataea (479 B.C.E.): An army of 80,000 allied Athenian and Spartan troops defeated the Persian army.

20. What were the major cultural achievements of Athens, in terms of drama, sculpture, philosophy, athletics, architecture, and religion?

In drama, they would do plays that had stories, they would do these plays in theaters and only men could act in them and they wore masks on their faces to play the roles of women since they couldn’t act. Their sculpture wasn’t fully new, as they  actually got inspired by the ancient egyption sculptures, but they added more colors and added better texture to theirs. On their philosophy, it was interesting due to having encouragement over their lives. Their athletics included having chariot races and combat sports such as boxing and kicking and horse racing and finally food races, and they do all this just to honor their gods and goddesses. Architecture comes next. And its quite intresting as well, as they made temples not just to warship their gods an goddesses, but as beautiful dwellings specially made for their gods. Religion isnt something new, but is still something intresting and important, as they only worshiped gods that had specials job.In the world and they all lived in the mountians.

21. How did Alexander the Great build his empire?

Alexander the Great became king after his father, King Phillip II, died. Alexander began his conquest of the Persian Empire 334 B.C. with the Battle of Granicus. Alexander’s forces destroyed the Persian forces. A year later, Alexander the Great, defeated the Persian army at the Battle of Issus and freed the Greek city-states of Asia Minor. He then captured Syrian and Egypt. Alexander built the city of Alexandria in Egypt as a center of business. Alexandria became one of the most important cities in the ancient world. Alexander the Great continued to conquer the Persian Empire (by fighting in modern day Pakistan, India and Iran). In 323 B.C., Alexander planned to invade southern Arabia, but he became ill and died.