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social science- foundation and growth of human society

natural science- explains & predicts phenomena in nature

political science- study of politics, institutions, and it’s processes

sociology- scientific study of society

anthropology- study of human beings, origins, society, and cultures

institution- organized system of social relationship, represents society’s common values

social relationships- personal, intimate, casual, civil, formal, etc.

Auguste comte- father of sociology, defined the word sociology in 1838

richard osborne- “one must look at society like an alien to avoid bias & prejudice” (1996)

society- group of people living in an organized community

individualism- states that all values, rights, and duties come from each individual

culture- beliefs, pracices, views, norms, that is shared in a society

institutions                                                                                     culture is ;

family- bedrock foundation of society                                             dynamic, flexible, adaptive 

education- designed to preserve and transfer cultural knowledge      shared & contested

economy- production and allocation of resources and services         transmitted & transmitted via socialization

government- social institutions that enforces policy and law              set of patterned social interaction

media- responsible for the circulation of vital information                 integrated, sometimes unstable

religion- organized collection of beliefs                                            requires language & forms of communication

Rational argument- makes sense, rational, well founded

rationalist- one who bases his knowledge, actions, ideas on practical knowledge

rationalism- theory of upholding hegemony of reason in the human person

non rational- different from & maybe higher than experience or reason

ultimate presupposition- foundation of all ideas but which themselves can’t be proven

foundationalism- the idea that not everyting can be argued

areas of philosophy                                                                              reasons to study philo

methaphysics- studies reality, seeking it’s causes in absolute sense           enhances critical thinking

epistemology- “how do we know”                                                         improve comprehension

value theory- investigation of something worth significant                       upgrade our lives

ethics- “what is morally good?”                                                              liberate us

aesthetics- “what is art”

logic- study of principles by which we distnguish sound from unsound reasoning

oral philosopher- no formal training

street philosopher- boasts to be knowledgable but is stupid

amateur philosopher- studies for his own satisfaction

student philosopher- studies philo in school, university, college

academic philosopher- does not earn money as a philosopher but is a professional at degree lvl

great philosopher- systematic in way of thinking, almost all are gone


plato/aristocles- father of idealism, spiritual realm & matter realm

georg berkeley- subjective idealism/solipsism, anything outside the mind is unjustified

immanuel kant- transcendental idealism, as they appear/as they are themselves

friedrich w. joseph schelling- objective idealism, mind communicating with the mind

georg w. friedrich hegel- absolute idealism, goal of human minds is to connect to a greater conciousness


aristotle- father of realism, ultimate form

st. thomas aquinas- moderate realism, platonic realism, nominalism


charles peirce- father of pragmatism, thought, to be valid & useful, must provide action

john dewey- instrumentalism, theories are instruments of action & their application determins truth

william james- test of a theory, belief, or doctrine must be their results

existentialism- “god is obsolete”

soren kierkegaad- father of existentialism, aesthetic, ethical, religious

friedrich nietzsche- morality is an intervention of the weak to limit the strong

jean paul sartre- believes that man makes his own definition

martin heidegger- factuality, existentiality, forfeiture

 umvelt- relationship woth the world

 mitvelt- relationship with others

 eigenvelt- relationship with self

ionian                                                                                        italian

thales-everything is made of water                                               empedocles- first to posit the four elements

anaximander- indefinite is responsible for death & destruction       democritus- discovered the atom

anaximenes- air is everywhere until heated, turns to fire                 athenian

heraclitus- “everything flows” change is permanent                       socrates- believes evil is a product of ignorance

                                                                                                 plato- mind controls wil & appetite

                                                                                                 aristotle- matter & form cannot be separated