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Aristotle: understanding motion is the same as understanding nature itself (Keen observations and metaphysics)

Galileo: father of modern science. Treat nature as things that can be studied and measured; experiments (inclined plane experiment: the first mathematical law of nature)

Newton: Mechanical view of the universe

Sun and Planet gear changes linear motion to a circular one

Joules performed an experiment, showing heat is a form of energy 9k=

Heat is the random kinetic energy of atoms, called thermal energy

Wave is a form of energy; mass is also a form

In a closed system the total amount of energy, including heat, is conserved.

Conduction: 传导�?/span>Convection:对流;Radiation:辐�?/span>

Heat will flow to cold body with outside force

Thompson: Atoms are not the fundamental building blocks of matter,

Proton: 0.84 fm

Factor in Sun radiation to Earth: 1. Sun’s fusion; 2. Energy transport; 3. Distance;4. Earth Size; 5. Light propagation inside atomosphere;6. Green coverage

Quark: No isolated quark had been observed in nature

Spectroscopy: The technique to “break up�?light into its different colors

Bohr: electron can move between energy levels.

Planck’s constant = 6.626*10-34 J s

wave nature of light: interference effects of light; particle nature: photoelectric effect

wavelength of matter: aQm2xOnOW2h9xkl0cploWBwsBhDPwDUPU3G9zfJM

atomic orbitals in chemistry are in fact representations of the probability distribution of the positions of electrons

Origin of elements: 1. Big Bang light element; 2. Nuclear fusion in stars: up to Fe; Neutron capture: heavier

Neutron capture: Slow: one by one; Rapid: Build up big then decay

Application of the periodic law: 1. Estimate atomic weight; 2. Determine properties of the undiscovered

卤素�?/span>Halogens;碱(土)金属:Alkali (Earth) Metals�?/span>

Ionization energy goes up rightwards

Aufbau Principle: addition of one electron; to the outermost shell

Molecule: free radicals and unstable species are also classified as molecules

Four reactions: (De)composition; (Single/Double) Displacement

Arrhenius Equation: RAuosTw28AAAAASUVORK5CYII=

Characterization of functional groups using IR spectroscopy: vibrational spectrum

Isomers: same formula: structural or stereoisomer; enantiomer

Protein folding failure: DNA mutations; Mistakes in folding; cell environments

Prism, Cage, and Book structure, 6 molecule, most stable cluster.

NBD: Technique: wide (0.1eV), strong (1013cm-2), near infrared (~800nm), short (25~fs)

Hydrogen bond: Rock crack;

Allotropes: Different forms of an element (also, allotropy)


Four must for life: Semi-permeable active boundary; energy transduction apparatus; records and catalysts; evolutionary capacities

Phylogenetics: study of the evolutionary history


Cladograms: Branching figures

Bacteria: can exist as single; small (10%); no nucleus; lack some organelles


tRNA: in ribosome

Secondary: Hydrogen bond; Tertiary: Hydrogen bond, disulfide bridge, hydrophobic interaction; ionic interaction; Quaternary: multi-member

Growth hormone is a polypeptide

Mitosis: skin; Meiosis: baby

Polypeptide: �?/span>

Frederick Griffith 1928: Something kills rat; Avery, McLeod, McCarty 1944: Active factor is DNA

Allele: alternate form of a given gene

PGD: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

Cell: All living organisms are composed of one or more cells;

Chloroplast: 叶绿�?/span>; Cell Wall�?/span>Golgi apparatus: Modification of proteins and marking for secretion�?/span>Endoplasmic reticulum: smooth for lipid and steroid; Rough for protein synthesis�?/span>nucleus: where DNA resides�?/span>mitochondrion: where respiration and energy production occur

MEMBRANE: phospholipids bilayer, hydro-philic head; hydro-phobic tail�?/span>In it: cytoskeleton, skeleton; Cholesterol, fluidity; Glycolipids and glycoproteins: cell recognition and migration; Proteins, receptors for hormones, transporters and channels for ions and others

HPA axis = Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

Positive feedback cycles: birth, ovulation, blood clotting; heat stroke

Types of selection: Natural selection: gradual, non-random, selected by environment�?/span>Artificial selection�?/span>Sexual selection

Natural selection: 1. accounts for diversification; 2. Accounts for design; 3. Accounts for evolution

5 kingdom: Monera (unicell), Protista, fungi, plants, animals

Evolution: Mutation creates heritable variation; natural selection affects passing on

Atavism: A gene not supposed to be on being turned on.

Heterotrophs: Decomposer & Detritivore

Earth: 6371km, 5.94E24 kg, 4.57E9 yrs; open system

Interior: core(1200 solid +2700, Fe, Ni), mantle(2900km, silicates, Si, O, Mg, Fe), crust(8-40km, O47, Si28, Al, Fe).

Seismology: study and measurement of sound vibrations within earth

P waves: pressure wave, solid and liquid�?/span>S waves: shear waves, solids

Volcano: subsurface molten rock called magma,

Continental Drift theory: Alfred Wegener

Plate tectonic: Ocean floor (mid-atlantic ridge), Magnetic reversal, rock age(isotope), direct measurement of motion (NA to E. 5 cm/yr)

Earth moves: mantle convection (hotter inward)

Divergent Plate Boundary: Ridge�?/span>Convergent: one plate sinks beneath another to form a subduction zone, Trench, Mountains�?/span>Transform: scrapes, earthquake

Atmosphere: thin, mostly within 16km

Outgassing: releasing of TgbG6wJtiei34h4AT1CcAiQ7zmqyBrIGsgf9DA38

first photosynthetic microorganisms: cyanobacteria, 3.5 billion yr

Ptolemy: Big small circle -> Copernicus: helio-centric (supported by Venus phases) -> Kepler (No telescope): Eclipse

Season breaking point: summer solstice, equinoxes

Milankovitch Cycles: 1. Precession of Earth’s rotation axis.; 2. Variations in Earth’s elliptical orbit around the Sun.; 3. Variations in the tilt angle of Earth’s rotation axis

Meteorites: Solid particles (mostly fragments of asteroids) that occasionally lands on Earth

1-solar Red giant phase: H-He-C-O-Planetary Nebular-White; 25-solar: onion-layer structure-super nova

AU: 1.496E11, ly: 9.46E15

Olber’s paradox: static, time & space infinite

Distance: parallax for near, brightness calculation from standard candle for farther

Black Body Radiation: Higher T, stronger, higher f light.