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Human Resource Planning
A process of evaluating a company’s human resource needs and planning hiring and staffing accordingly.
Employee Screening
The process of reviewing information about job applicants to select individuals for jobs.
Performance Appraisals
The formalized means of assessing worker performance in comparison to certain established organizational standards.
Talent Inventory
An assessment of the current KSAOs (knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics) of current employees and how they are used.
Weighted Application Forms
Forms that assign different weights to the various pieces of information provided on a job application.
Performance Criteria
Measures used to determine successful job performance.
Workforce Forecast
A plan for future HR requirements. (i.e. the number of positions forecasted, the skills those positions will require, and some sense of what the market is for those workers)
Specific bits of biographical data; background information and personal characteristics that can be used in employee selection.
Objective Performance Criteria
Measures of job performance that are easily quantified.
Action Plans
Development of a plan to guide the recruitment, selection, training, and compensation of the future hires.
Four Types of Information Provided by Reference Checks and Letters of Recommendation
(1) Employment and Educational History, (2) Evaluations of the Applicant’s Character, (3) Evaluation of the Applicant’s Job Performance, and (4) Recommender’s Willingness to Rehire the Applicant.
Subjective Performance Criteria
Measures of job performance that typically consist of ratings or judgements of performance; usually applied to management jobs and jobs with subjective output or variable output quality.
Control and Evaluation
A system of feedback to assess how well the HR system is working, and how well the company met its HR plan.
The consistency of a measurement instrument over time.
Main Advantages of Objective Performance Criteria
(1) They are less prone to bias and (2) They’re usually more directly tied to the “bottom-line” assessment of an organization’s success
Criterion Relevance
The extent to which the means of appraising performance is pertinent to job success.
Test-Retest Reliability
A method of determining the stability of measurement instrument by administering the same measure to the same people at two different times and then correlating the scores.
Employee Recruitment
The process by which companies attract qualified applicants.
Realistic Job Preview (RJP)
An accurate presentation of the prospective job and organization made to applicants.
Parallel Forms
A method of establishing the reliability of a measurement instrument by correlating scores on two different but equivalent versions of the same instrument.
Criterion Contamination
The extent to which performance appraisals contain elements that detract from the accurate assessment of job effectiveness.
Employee Screening
The process of reviewing information about job applicants used to select workers.
Internal Consistency
A common method establishing a measurement instrument’s reliability by examining how the various items of the instrument intercorrelate.
Criterion Deficiency
The degree to which a criterion falls short of measuring job performance.
Employee Selection
The process of choosing applicants for employment.
Split-Half Reliability
A method of determining internal consistency that divides the test items into two equal parts and correlate the summed score on the first half of the items with that on the second half.
Criterion Usefulness
The extent to which a performance criterion is usable in appraising a particular job.
Measures of job success.
Cronbach’s Alpha
An estimate of a test’s internal consistency determined by finding the average intercorrelation among all items of the test.
Sources of Performance Ratings
(1) Supervisor Appraisals, (2) Self-Appraisals, (3) Peer Appraisals, (4) Subordinate Appraisals, (5) Customer Appraisals, and (6) 360-Degree Feedback.
360-Degree Feedback
A method of gathering performance appraisals from a worker’s supervisors, subordinates, peers, customers, and other relevant parties.
Variables about applicants that are related to the criteria.
A concept referring to the accuracy of a measurement instrument and its ability to make accurate inferences about a criterion.
False-Positive Errors
Erroneously accepting applicant who would have been unsuccessful.
Content Validity
The ability of the items in a measurement instrument to measure adequately the various characteristics needed to perform a job.
Methods of Rating Performance
(1) Comparative Methods and (2) Individual Methods.
False-Negative Errors
Erroneously rejecting applicants who would have been successful.
Construct Validity
The ability of an employment test to measure what it is supposed to measure.
Comparative Methods
Performance appraisal methods involving comparisons of one worker’s performance against that of other workers: (1) Rankings, (2) Paired Comparisons, and (3) Forced Distributions.
Multiple Regression Model
An employee selection method that combines separate predictors of job success in a statistical procedure.
Criterion-Related Validity
The accuracy of a measurement instrument in determining the relationship between scores on the instrument and some criterion of job success.
Performance appraisal methods involving the ranking of supervisees from best to worst.
Multiple Cutoff Model
An employee selection method using a minimum cutoff score on each of the various predictors of job performance.
Types of Employee Screening Tests
(1) Test Formats, (2) Biodata Instruments, (3) Cognitive Ability Tests, (4) Mechanical Ability Tests, (5) Motor and Sensory Ability Tests, (6) Job Skills and Knowledge Tests, (7) Personality Tests, (8) Honesty and Integrity Tests, and (9) Other Employee Screening Tests.
Paired Comparison
Performance appraisal method in which the rater compares each worker with each other worker in the group.
Forced Distributions
Assigning workers to established categories of poor to good performance with fixed limitations on how many employees can be assigned to each category
Test Formats
(1) Individual vs. Group, (2) Speed vs. Power, and (3) Pencil-and-Paper vs. Performance.
Multiple Hurdle Model
An employee selection strategy that requires that an acceptance or rejection decision be made at each of several stages in a screening process.
Employee Placement
The process of assigning workers to appropriate jobs.
Work Sample Tests
A type of test used in job skill tests to measure applicants’ abilities to perform brief examples of important job tasks
Individual Methods
Performance appraisal methods that evaluate an employees by themselves alone, without explicit reference to other workers: (1) Graphic Rating Scales, (2) Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales, (3) Behavioral Observation Scales, (4) Checklists, and (5) Narratives.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
The federal agency created to protect against discrimination in employment.
Personality Tests
Instruments that measure psychological characteristics of individuals.
Graphic Rating Scales
Performance appraisal methods using a predetermined scale to rate the worker on important job dimensions.
Protected Groups
Groups including women and certain ethnic and racial minorities that have been identified as previous targets of employment discrimination.
Emotional Intelligence
Ability to understand, regulate, and communicate emotions and to use them to inform thinking.
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
Performance appraisal technique using rating scales with labels reflecting examples of poor, average, and good behavioral incidents.
Adverse Impact
When members of a protected group are treated unfairly by an employer’s personnel action.
Instruments that measure physiological reactions presumed to accompany deception; also known as lie detectors.
Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS)
Performance appraisal methods that require appraisers to recall how often a worker has been observed performing key work behaviors.
Performance appraisal methods using a series of statements about job performance.
Integrity Tests
Measures of honest or dishonest attitudes and behaviors.
Affirmative Action
The voluntary development of policies that try to ensure that jobs are made available to qualified individuals regardless of sex, age, or ethnic background.
Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications
Real and valid occupational needs required for a particular job.
Test Battery
A combination of employee tests used to increase the ability to predict future job performance.
Open-ended written accounts of a worker’s performance used in performance appraisals.
Validity Generalization
The ability of a screening instrument to predict performance in a job or setting different from the one in which the test was validated
Problems and Pitfalls in Performance Appraisals
(1) Leniency/Severity Errors, (2) Halo Effects, (3) Recency Effects, (4) Causal Attribution Errors, (5) Personal Biases, and (6) Cross-Cultural and International Issues.
Test Utility
The value of a screening test in determining important outcomes, such as dollars gained by the company through its use.
Leniency Error
The tendency to give all workers very positive performance appraisals.
The practice of purposely distorting one’s responses to a test to try to “beat” the test.
Severity Error
The tendency to give all workers very negative performance appraisals.
Assessment Center
A detailed, structured evaluation of job applicants using a variety of instruments and techniques.
Central Tendency Error
The tendency to give all workers the mid point rating in performance appraisals.
Situational Exercises
Assessment tools that require the performance of tasks that approximate actual work tasks.
Halo Effect
An overall positive evaluation of a worker based on one known positive characteristic or action.
Recency Effects
The tendency to give greater weight to recent performance and lesser weight to earlier performance.
Snap Judgement
An opinion based on one quick bit of information; arriving at a premature, early overall evaluation of an applicant in a hiring interview.
Causal Attribution
The process by which people assign cause to events or behaviors.
Biases in Causal Attribution
(1) The tendency of giving more extreme performance appraisals if you believe the cause of that performance is rooted in effort rather than ability and (2) Actor-Observer Bias.
Actor-Observer Bias
The tendency for observers to overattribute cause to characteristics of the actor and the tendency for the actor to overattribute cause to situational characteristics.
Personal Biases
The tendency for personal beliefs about one or more of a worker’s objective attributes (sex, race, age, etc.) to impact that worker’s performance appraisal.
Cross-Cultural and International Issues
The tendency for cultural norms and expectations to be ignored across cultural and international barriers.
Performance Feedback
The process of giving information to a worker about performance level with suggestions for future improvement.
Employee Training
Planned organizational efforts to help employees learn job-related knowledge, skills, and other characteristics.
Areas of Employee Training
(1) New Employee Orientation and Training, (2) Retraining and Continuing Education Programs, (3) Retirement Planning and Preparation, (4) Employee Career Development, (5) Training Workers for International Assignments, (6) Training in Diversity Issues, Harassment, and Ethnic Behavior, and (7) Team Training.
Social Learning Theory
Learning theory that emphasizes the observational learning of behavior.
Learning that occurs through the observation and limitation of the behavior of others.
Cognitive Theories of Learning
Learning theories that emphasize that humans are information processors.
Key Issues in the Success of Training Programs
(1) Transfer of Training, (2) Trainee Readiness, and (3) Training Program Structure.
Transfer of Training
Concept dealing with whether training is actually applied in the work setting.
Trainee Readiness
The individual’s potential for successful training.
Model for Successful Training Programs
(1) Assess Training Needs, (2) Establish Training Objectives, (3) Develop and Test Training Materials, (4) Implement Training Program, and (5) Evaluate Training Program.
Levels of Assessing Training Needs
(1) Organizational Analysis, (2) Task Analysis, (3) Person Analysis, and (4) Demographic Analysis.
Organizational Analysis
Analysis of the needs and goals of the organization.
Task Analysis
Analysis of the requirements for performing the task.
Person Analysis
Analysis of the skills and knowledge required to do the job.
Demographic Analysis
Analysis of the training needs for specific demographic groups.
Employee Training Methods
(1) On-Site Methods, (2) Off-Site Methods, and (3) Management/Leadership Training Methods.
On-Site Methods
(1) On-The-Job Training, (2) Apprenticeship, (3) Vestibule Training, and (4) Job Rotation.
On-The-Job Training
An employee training method of placing a worker in the workplace to learn firsthand about a job.
A training technique, usually lasting several years, that combines on-the-job experience with classroom instruction.
Vestibule Training
Training that uses a separate area adjacent to the work area to simulate the actual work setting.
Job Rotation
A method of rotating workers among a variety of jobs to increase their breadth of knowledge.
Off-Site Methods
(1) Seminars, (2) Audiovisual Instruction, (3) Behavior Modeling Training, (4) Simulation Techniques, and (5) Web-Based Training.
A common training method in which an expert provides job-related information in a classroom-like setting.
Audiovisual Instruction
The use of films, videotapes, and other electronic media to convey training material.
Behavior Modeling Training
A training method that exposes trainees to role models performing appropriate and inappropriate work behaviors and their outcomes and then allows trainees to practice modeling the appropriate behaviors.
Training that replicates job conditions without placing the trainee in the actual work setting.
Programmed Instruction
Self-paced individualized training in which trainees are provided with training materials and can test how much they’ve learned.
Computer-Assisted Instruction
Programmed instruction delivered by computer that adapts to the trainee’s learning rate.
Problem-Solving Case Study
A management training technique that presents a real or hypothetical organizational problem that trainees attempt to solve.
A management training exercise that requires trainees act out problem situations that often occur at work.
Management Games
A management training technique using scaled-down enactments of the operations and managements of organizations.
An unstructured management training technique in which participants share ideas, information, and problems; also called a group discussion.
Action Learning
Teams assembled to work on company-related problem of issue to learn by doing.
A training program in which an inexperienced worker develops a relationship with an experienced worker who serves as an advisor.
A one-on-one relationship where a consultant helps an executive improve performance.
Criteria for Evaluating a Program’s Effectiveness
(1) Reaction Criteria, (2) Learning Criteria, (3) Behavioral Criteria, and (4) Results Criteria.
Posttest-Only Design
A program evaluation that simply measures training success criterion following completion of the training program.
Pretest-Posttest Design
A design for evaluating a training program that makes comparisons of criterion measures collected before and after the introduction of the program.
Solomon Four-Group Design
A method of program evaluation using two treatment groups and two control groups.