Understanding Personality Disorders and Behavioral Traits


: discrimination in favour of able-bodied people.


: discrimination against persons of a certain age group.


: the tendency to act in a cooperative, unselfish manner, construed as one end of a dimension of individual differences.


: a state intermediate between extroversion and introversion/ a state intermediate between extroversion and introversion.

Antisocial Personality Disorder

: is a particularly challenging type of personality disorder characterized by impulsive, irresponsible and often criminal behaviour.

Avoidant Personality Disorder

: people with avoidant personality disorder have chronic feelings of inadequacy and are highly sensitive to being negatively judged by others.

Borderline Personality Disorder

: a mental illness that severely impacts a person’s ability to manage their emotions.


: a line which marks the limits of an area; a dividing line.

The Caseworker Governance Model

: governance emphasizing social workers’ role in decision-making and policy administration for social services

Dwelling-based Governance Model

: governance centered around housing units, involving active resident participation in decision-making.

Uncoordinated Governance Model

: governance lacking effective coordination among different governmental entities or actors.

User-coordinated Governance Model

: governance involving active user participation in decision-making and policy formulation for public services.


: bad-tempered or irritable.

A Cohort Study

: A research study that compares a particular outcome (such as lung cancer) in groups of individuals who are alike in many ways but differ by a certain characteristic.


: the quality of wishing to do one’s work or duty well and thoroughly.

A Cross-sectional Study

: A type of research study in which a group of people is observed, or certain information is collected, at a single point in time or over a short period of time.

Dependent Personality Disorder

: is a type of anxious personality disorder. People with DPD often feel helpless, submissive or incapable of taking care of themselves.


: the study of how your behaviors and environment can cause changes that affect the way your genes work.


(“extroversion” and “extrovert” are also possible): a personality trait or style characterized by a preference for or orientation to engaging socially with others.

A Field Study

: collecting data outside of an experimental or lab setting.


: information discovered as the result of an inquiry or investigation.

Genetic Expression

: the process by which the information encoded in a gene is turned into a function.


: the extreme avoidance of social contact.

Histrionic Personality Disorder

: a type of psychiatric disorder that features attention-seeking behaviours, seductive behaviour and emotional over-reaction.


: a personality trait characterized by being shy and quiet, they prefer to spend time alone rather than with people.

A Longitudinal Study

: researchers repeatedly examine the same individuals to detect any changes that might occur over a period of time.


: feeling or expressing pensivesadness.


: excessive interest in or admiration of oneself and one’s physical appearance.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

: a mental health condition in which people have an unreasonably high sense of their own importance.

Nurture (vs. Nature)

: “Nature” means innate biological factors (namely genetics), while “nurture” can refer to upbringing or life experience more generally.

Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder

: a mental health condition that causes an extensive preoccupation with perfectionism, organization, and control.

Openness to Experience

: a dimension of cognitive style that distinguishes imaginative, creative people from down-to-earth, conventional people.

Paranoid Personality Disorder

: a mental condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of distrust and suspicion of others.


: widespread in a particular area or at a particular time.


: (of a person) having an unemotional and stolidly calm disposition.


: optimistic or positive, especially in an apparently bad or difficult situation.

Schizoid Personality Disorder

: a mental health condition marked by a consistent pattern of detachment from and general disinterest in social relationships.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

: is a mental health condition marked by a consistent pattern of intense discomfort with relationships and social interactions.

Startle Response

: a complicated involuntary reaction to a sudden unexpected stimulus (especially a loud noise); involves flexion of most skeletal muscles and a variety of visceral reactions.