Understanding Biogeochemical Cycles and Ecological Succession

Biogeochemical Cycles

A biogeochemical cycle is a set of processes that a chemical element undergoes as it moves between different subsystems and molecules.

Hydrological Cycle

: a biogeochemical cycle is also q runs through the four subsystems involved in many changes in the elements, ie x in the hydration of non-metal oxides in the atmosphere causing aerosols in the hydrolysis of minerals in the earth’s crust producing weathering of rocks. In CILC of water is also an effective q conveyor moves the items from system to system, gathering mostly of continents and accumulated in the oceans. CYCLE **** N: *** ATMOSPHERE: The molecular N is 79% of the volume of the atmosphere and originates in the activity of spoilage bacteria living in anoxic environments q. Tom found as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia. *** BIOSPHERE: It is found in nucleic acids in the tissues of living organisms. N-fixing bacteria convert the nitrate-N molecular can be assimilated x q producers. Consumers make the N incorporated directly into plants. Human activities influence the N cycle and q is a contaminant of atmosphere and hydrosphere (groundwater) *** Hydrosphere: Nitrogen is very soluble in water and is mainly in the form of Niitratos q x bodies can be assimilated photosynthetic *** BARK: is mid mainly in the form of salts in evaporite rocks. ***** CYCLE C: The 3 + abundant element of the biosphere: *** ATMOSPHERE: The majority of C is in the form of CO2 x the respiration of living organisms, fossil fuel burning, incencios, photosynthesis, etc, q methane comes from the activity of aerobic bacteria, and also in CFC. *** BIOSPHERE: The dissolved organic molecules in the shells and exoskeletons *** hydrosphere: The CO2 is very soluble. In the form of HCO3-(bicarbonate ion), CO3 2 – (carbonate) and sediment (CH 4). *** BARK: Rocks carnonatadas (limestones and dolomites), fossil fuels, material Organix dead, etc. **** S CYCLE: *** ATMOSPHERE: Located in the form of oxides (H sulfide), SO2. The combustion of fossil fuels and volcanic activity provide oxygen to the atmosphere. Overuse of acid rain generated. *** BIOSPHERE: Are amino acids in photosynthetic producers. Chemosynthetic bacteria use it w / energy. Mining large amount of S released to the hydrosphere to defile it. *** Hydrosphere: H Sulfide (H2S) oxyacids anions (SO2-2, SO3-2, SO4-2) *** BARK: oxyacids salts of evaporitic sedimentary rocks such as gypsum. Volcanic eruptions release large amounts of S. CYCLE **** P: *** BIOSPHERE: This is the biomolecules and the skeletons of vertebrates, nucleic acids *** Hydrosphere: Very little, accumulates in the deep ocean. In the form of PO4 -3, HPO, H2PO4. **** CRUST: In the volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Fertilizer use alters the cycle. **** ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION: biogeochemical systems, from the moment q originate, tend to increase its complexity and to accumulate information over time. Q The process x is evolving ecosystems and ecological succession is a series of q changes occurring in the community structure from its origin to maturity. During the sequence, the different species they are establishing q changes occur in the middle, q facilitate or inhibit the installation of new ones. During the succession occur: *** INCREASE OF BIODIVERSITY: As time passes q n species in the community is growing and some are replacing other species. *** Increasing complexity of ecosystems: By increasing the n species tbm does the length of food chains and relations of the q x predation trophic networks become increasingly complex.**** LAND DEVELOPMENT: In your training. *** DEVELOPMENTS trophic parameters: ** The biomass grows to the max q le imponene limiting factors. This occurs through the gradual introduction of higher mass species. Tbm necromass grows. The increase of decay organisms produces increased respiration in the ecosystem. ** The net decreases. Primary production is high and the top is decreasing as consumers and decomposers q will balance with breathing. ** The values of lower productivity. By progressively increasing the biomass, the relationship between production and biomass is diminishing. **** PRIMARY SUCCESSION: Starting from q zone has not been previously colonized *** 1. Over an area devoid of soil lichens grow only on rocks and mosses in wet areas +. There may be a wildlife like birds, insects, mammals and reptiles kids, but primary production is negligible q x as consumers eat elsewhere *** 2. Herbaceous plants are the one to grow on the x regolith produced by weathering and sedimentation. Your necromass allows the onset of soil formation. The ecosystem shows an increasing primary production. Their biomass is very low x as q productivity is high. *** 3. The vegeracion shrub grows when the soil is well developed, contributing to the weathering of rocks and increases the thickness and maturity of the soil. The biodiversity is greatly increased and their biomass is growing rapidly. Its net production and productivity are high .*** 4; The lush vegetation of a mature forest biomass does increase much q x q as productivity declines rapidly. The well-developed soil respiration produces an intense q almost balances the gross production. **** CLIMAX. STABILIZATION AND SELF-REGULATION: The ecological succession lags and comes to a halt when the limiting factors preventing q ICs growing biomass. This is the climax and represents the final stage of ecological succession. The climax in an ecosystem represents a stable situation xq reflects a balance between the intrinsic tendency to increase their biomass biocenosis and complexity and environmental factors q put a limit to this increase. In this situation climax ecosystem presents a notable stabilization amostiguar able to external shocks. These perturbations x usually due to abnormal variations in nutrient supply in the T environment, rainfall or other limiting factors to epidemics or invasions from outside the ecosystem, etc.. The food web can be adjusted when these changes produce some change in the population q and consumers have typically varied diet. ** One of the mechanisms of regulation and ecosystem homostasis is adjusting the size of the maximum sustainable populations typically involves the death q starvation of large n x individuals. **** SECONDARY REGRESSION AND SUCCESSION: Sometimes an ecosystem experiences an intense disturbance, such as a fire or a flood or a hurricane q alters its structure. The perturbation produces a regression: the ecosystem is taken to a state prior to q biomass had reached its lower complexity and some stocks disappear or reduce their work. If the soil is not removed x permance erosion, recovery of the initial situation can be relatively quick and q the ecosystem but has been brought to an early stage of succession, is reminiscent of a stadium + high. Q ecological succession is initiated under these conditions is secondary succession. If the disturbance has been so radical q has eliminated the vegetation and soil ecosystem is considered q has disappeared and the area begins a new primary succession may result in an ecosystem q different from before. REGRESSION **** self-induced: Critical Back On occasions has an anthropic origin as in the case of fire, deforestation, dumping pollutants, etc and other times it is due to natural factors external to the ecosystem as a volcanic eruption.