1. Introduction to Design

1.1 Definition of the design:

The design is an attitude aimed at determining goals for the solution of problems (Bruce Iach).

Design is the conscious effort to impose a significant order, (Victor Papanek).

Design is the discovery of the real components of a physical structure (Alexander, 1973).

The design is the realization of an act of faith (Jhones).

Design is the beginning of a change in things made by man, (Jhones).

Design is the development of a decision in the face of uncertainty.

Design is a creative activity involving the pursuit of something new and useful non-existent, (Reswik).

Design is the imaginative leap from the present reality to future realities.

Designing is an orderly and consciously manipulated to meet the needs of man (Fernando Ruiz).


In all definitions the design must be understood as an innovation in any field that complies with previous requirements.

Industrial Design is a creative activity and projecting that determines the formal properties (related to Aesthetics and Personality), the functional properties (related to the use and operation) and Building Material Properties (Manufacturing Processes) of those objects that can be produced industrially.

1.2. Industrial Goods and Objects:

Reasons to Create

  • Needs, gaps or lack of something
  • APIRE, for lack of subject satisfaction

Object Classification

Lobach, 1981

  • Natural objects, stones, animals, trees, etc..
  • SLIGHTLY MODIFIED NATURAL OBJECTS, stone carved, wooden planks, etc..
  • Art objects, no function, only sensory practice
  • Products, products made by man.






They are those who after use ceases to exist, (food or hygiene).

They are single use and maintain a certain association Person – Object (glasses, pipe, clock, etc.)..

They are sharing a small group of people, (appliances, tables, cars, etc.)..

Are those with which the public has little or no relationship (motors, electrical circuits).

Any industrial product has three functional components in varying degrees depending on the type of object.


Aesthetic function – (Aspirations)

SYMBOLIC ROLE – (Relations between the object and prior experiences or sensations)

1.3. Industrial Innovation:

It consists in the constant creation of new products or new versions of existing products that allow follow on the market. This ongoing development is to replace existing products to improve them, to improve the quality and price, and to meet emerging needs and aspirations.

1.4. Preparation and Introduction of New Products:

Sales and Performance

Industrial Innovation


ITHDRAWAL goals and strategies













2. Developments in Design Methodology:

2.1 The Craft Method:

Purpose Craft: is he who is without methodology based on experience and oral transmission, has no plans, no manufacturing processes and marketing channels do not exist.


A) The information is from craftsman to artisan oral over time.

B) It is known to be produced but not because it is made.

C) The changes are slow in time.

D) It is configured and working on all of the object in the part.

E) Do not draw anything, so there is no explanation on the changes

F) The new materials are introduced very slowly

G) If there is a rapid change produces a jarring effect on the object.


A) Maximum suitability of materials.

B) Almost no nonfunctional.

C) Full integration into society and the environment


A) accepted a few innovations.

B) Cost uncontrolled

C) Low market penetration.

D) Oral transmission has risks of inaccuracy.

2.2 The Design Through Drawing

After the craft (and parallel to it) appeared through drawing and design is to propose the design of an object and its amendments through drawing on paper.


A) When using the scales can raise any type of design however large.

B) You can divide the object into parts and partly relocated.

C) may involve a variety of designers.

D) There is no cost changes, amendments are on paper.

E) The designs can be implemented by most manufacturers.

F) Allows industrialization.


A) The drawing only reports on the conditions of form and dimension.

B) does not cover the total needs of users.

C) Not suitable for designing systems, only objects.

D) The plans do not include external reactions.

2.3 New Methods

The new methods are modern. In the 50s and 60s. It fits into a theory which was initially implemented, to name, etc..

At the center is virtue, to be neither very convenient nor methodological.


It is used when it is locked and it takes a few steps. When everything flows smoothly is not necessary.

Determines Methodology

The order in which actions are carried out (when done)

Contents, actions, (to do)

Procedures and techniques (how to)

A methodology, we are an end but a means to address a problem

Define set of recommendations for action in the specific field of the resolutions of problems, primarily the problems which an approach are:

Finding information and knowledge of the means available to it.

Compression of the problem and establishing the boundaries of the problem.

Creating one or more proposals that respond to problems.

Analysis and evaluation of proposals.

Expression and communication of ideas into something real that works.

Optimization objects designed so that it can be manufactured easily.

3. Project Overview

3.1 Conditions of the Project:

  • Constraints of use and destinations: To be used and what will be its role, and for whom.
  • Legal Constraints: ordinances, rules etc. It must investigate for yourself.
  • Conditioners Location: Where you will use, whether mobile or static thing.
  • Economic Constraints: These are the most influential and condition.

3.2. Documentation

Descriptive Report (Written explanation from beginning to end)




SPECIFICATION (Terms between the planner and executor of the project)

MEASURES AND BUDGETS (Unit Price multiplied by the measurements)

Plan (all plans)

MARKETING (Marketing, Corporate)

Descriptive Report

  • Aim
  • Information
  • Abstract
  • Conclusion
  • Sketches
  • Election
  • Implementation






3.3. Project Phases





It is the preliminary phase in which they express the ideas developed by the commission, so basic and systematic.



Floor plans, elevations and sections to scale (without drawing)


Explains the fundamental aspects and general characteristics of the order: functional, formal, Manufacturing Economics.



ROUTE large (at and drawings)


Is the phase in which work is defined to be the general characteristics of the designed object and justification through adoption of specific solutions. Its content is sufficient to obtain visas college, the appropriate license or other authorization.


Descriptive Report (Written explanation from beginning to end)




SPECIFICATION (Terms between the planner and executor of the project)

MEASURES AND BUDGETS (Unit Price multiplied by the measurements)

Plan (all plans)

MARKETING (Marketing, Corporate)

Is the phase of work developed by the baseline with a full specification details and specifications of all materials, auxiliary elements of the project, manufacturing systems and equipment.

3.4. Organization and Planning Grafica

Organizing is difficult to divide each plot, start by solving the simplest objects and climb gradually to knowledge of the complex, (Descartes).

Programming is provided for translating the organization a model enabling its realization in which all variables have solutions for themselves and other variables indicating the different relations of simultaneity or dependence.

Control is monitoring the program to verify that the solutions are equal to or is dispersed forecasts.

Graph is a drawing that represents a series of numbers, one set or the relationship between various sets. The most widespread representation, it is not the only one, is that referring to Cartesian axes. The use of graphs in one figure to synthesize the data.





STANDARDIZATION (General rules that allow it to be updated)





  • DIAGRAM OF KNOTS, based on a network of nodes and arrows or

vectors. In the knot mark the beginning or end of an activity, and the arrows mark the activity and duration.

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graph relating two sets, one formed by the activity to perform (more or less ordered) and the other for the duration of that activity. Can be defined as a calendar of activities which determines the starting date, duration and the final date. For the realization of a graph is available Grantt axes of coordinates in which the “X” represent the times and negative axis “Y” activities.

4. Planimetria

  • General Plans
  • Views dihedral
  • Axonometric view
  • Exploded Plans and Details
  • Drafting legislation



PLANT (A Scale / Regulations)







5. The Design Methodology

5.1. The Designer as Black Box:

A significant minority of design theories arise that the most valid of the design process occurs in the mind of the designer, and partly out of conscious control. We can say that the human designer like other animals can give answers (outputs) that can explain how to obtain certification. The brain is a network that combines models variable according to the stimuli (inputs) to get outside.

5.2. Designer as a transparent box:

It is assumed that the process of designing is completely understandable, even if the designer is unable to give convincing reasons for all decisions taken. In the transparent box methods assume that the designer is fully aware of what it does and it does.


  • The objectives, variables and criteria are set in advance.
  • The analysis is completed, at least before you try to find solutions. Solutions can also be analyzed.
  • The assessment is completely language and logic.
  • The strategy is set in advance and will generally work sequentially, but may include parallel and recycling operations.


  • The responses (output) are governed by the stimuli (inputs) recently received, and the experience gained in previous problems.
  • The responses (outputs) can be accelerated if social inhibitions are smoothed over time.
  • The designer’s ability to produce appropriate outputs to a problem depends on the time available to assimilate and manipulate images within it representing the global structure of the problem.
  • The smart way to introduce the structure of the problem within the black box, tends to increase the variety of responses.

5.3. Transformation or generation of ideas:

– Brainstorm: Traditional method of black box

– Synesthesia

Divisible and indivisible 5.4 Problems of design:

A circular system of the main objectives in design methodology is to make it less linear and more circular. Recycling means that sub critical issues have not been discovered in time to what a review is necessary.

-Linear system is the division of the general structure of a problem into sub problems coincident or related to the priority objectives and separate treatment of each of them for further study of compatibility or recycling.

Designer 5.5 as self-organized system

Both methods of transparent black box and expand the research area to solve a design problem.

The main weakness of these methods, particularly in the case of transparent box, is creating an alternative universe too vast to explore unknown through a slow process of thought.

The way to solve this dilemma caused by excessive novelty of many elements and the difficult assessment of them all, is to divide the process into two parts:

Some leading research in search of a suitable solution (research).

Another frequently to monitor and assess research models (control and evaluation) —

6 Strategies:

“The term design strategy describes a series of actions, typical of the designer or the team that aims to transform the initial problem or need a final design.

“When a design method is valid for solving a problem, is given the name of strategy.

“The strategy will change with different methods of design point

“There is a general strategy, but must be created specifically for each design problem posed taking into account their peculiarities.

“The elements of a point are the different methods both traditional and new.

-The guidelines and basic criteria for establishing the strategy are the right combination of logical reasoning, experience, knowledge of specific methods, intuition and creativity.

6.1. Types of strategy:

  • Pre-planned: Those that are fixed in advance and are typically used to solve unfamiliar situations to modify existing designs and less useful for new designs.

-Linear: composed of sequential actions, each action depends on the response of the previous stage.

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-Cyclic: Occurs when a stage has to be repeated after the solution of another stage.

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-Branched: Use when actions are independent. Parallel steps are included with the advantage of increasing the number of people working on the same problem.

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Stage 5 Stage 2c

  • Adaptable: They are those in which it is set to start only the first action. The subsequent action is influenced by the outcome of previous action. They have the disadvantage their inability to control the time and cost, and the advantage of enabling act by instinct.

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  • Incremental: Strategy and conservative design basis particularly in traditional craft industries. The danger of this strategy is the loss of good solutions when sin increases by default.
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Adjust the solution recall Explore

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Existing minor changes

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  • Fortuitous: There is no type of planning. Each stage is chosen independently of the others and in this way do the research as objective as possible.

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gif;% txrplz65% “Divergence Analysis

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7.1. -Methods of conflict or exploring design situations: (Extend the scope of info. Getting things that make no sense). The act of pushing the boundaries of the design situation and obtaining research area large enough for finding a solution.


  • Objectives unstable and experimental.
  • Limit the problem indefinitely.
  • The evaluation is postponed, any data it anymore.
  • The orders of the promoter are only starting points.
  • Must be eliminated at this stage preconceived solutions.
  • Decisions are postponed until later stages.

The research objective is the destruction of divergent initial order while permanent solutions are identified.

7.2. -Transformation Methods: The phase of model development, is entertaining high-level creative, full of wit, intuition, conjecture inspired by data, ie everything that makes the design in a pleasant task.

It is also the stage of major blunders, when the mirages and the narrowness of sight can prevail, and when experience is not necessary to propose costly, useless and harmful.


  • It permits the imposition of sufficiently accurate models that enable the convergence towards a single model.
  • Objectives are set, the orders of the promoter and the limits of the problem.
  • It makes the division of problems into sub problems so you can judge their possible solution in series or in parallel.
  • The personal aspect of design is evident, any subsequent election will be between a transformation or another, the changes should not be combined.

7.3. -Step Convergence: is the stage closest to the overall design. The designer’s goal is to realize one alternative among many possible, through a progressive reduction of the uncertainties high, reaching a final solution. (It is through evaluation).


  • Reduction of uncertainty as far as possible.
  • Responsibility in making decisions to take out the alternatives and they do not deserve investigation.
  • Ability to solve minor problems by recycling.
  • The models used are less abstract and more detailed, it is used for the planimetry, the scale drawing, models and prototypes. (It is associated with planimetry).


The operation of defining objectives is to determine goals imposed by external or internal.

The difficulty of this task is, to determine exactly what those goals. Call for an equilibrium between all the factors that influence the object such as: technical, economic, financial, commercial, etc.. …


a) They are defined.

b) They must be compatible. (Do not contradict each other)

c) The objectives should be reviewed when the information generated alter the starting points.

d) All secondary objectives should be defined where it proves necessary for achieving the objectives.


a) Identify the conditions within which it will operate the design manager

a.1) Legal

a.2) In location

a.3) Economics

b) Conditions of incompatibilities

b.1) Reasons promoter

b.2) Resources available

b.3) Objective essential and secondary

  • Essential are those proposed by the client and the designer himself and not fulfilled will result in automatic rejection of the proposed design, the shorter will be better.
  • Children, who are not indispensable for an acceptable solution, but if you consider that an improvement is achieved in the final solution.

c) Ensure that are essential and mutually independent.

d) Draw the requirements tree is a graphic sequence which contains the list of all possible requirements, from basic to the side with the possibility of partial solutions.

Looking up and down the tree lines indicate “as” a higher level goal can be achieved.

Looking at the tree from bottom to top lines indicate “because” a lower level target is necessary for the fulfillment of the target level.


Chair … … … … … … ….

… … … .. Comfort: holding back how? Tall, curved

——– material: madrea, iron


Is to find published information that may favorably affect the responses of the designer and can be obtained without cost or unacceptable delays.


1. The promoter (knows only what he handles, the rest nothing)

  • High degree of uncertainty.
  • Low cost (money and time).
  • Short acquisition time (money).

2. Suppliers (vendors, reporting …)

  • High degree of uncertainty (what they say will be a little manipulated).
  • Low cost.
  • Short time.

3. Publications

  • Books, encyclopedias, journals, research studies
  • High degree of uncertainty
  • Low cost
  • Time high (see extract)

4. The design team’s experience (their own or another)

  • Uncertainty is high.
  • Low cost (especially if we are the ones we bring the experience k)
  • Time low.

5. The high cost information

  • Industrial Property (patents, trademarks)
  • Manufacturing processes.
  • Masters of the subject.
  • High degree of uncertainty.
  • High cost.
  • Time high.

Technological institutes, public and private (VALENCIA)

IAEC. Technological Institute of the ceramics (Castellón)

AIDIMA. Technological institute of the cabinet (Paterna)

AIDIC. Construction Technology Institute (Paterna)

AIDO. Technological Institute of Optics (Paterna)

AIJU. (Technological Institute of the toy (Ibi, Alicante)

AIMME (technological institute of metal (Paterna)

AINPLAS. (Technological institute of plastic (Paterna)

AINIA. Food technology institute (Paterna)

AITEX. Textile Institute (Alcoy)

Gather information and assess. INSTITUTES (Functional Safety) TECHNOLOGY


  • Identify the purposes for which information is sought.
  • Identify the types of sources likely to contain the required information
  • Select the most appropriate ways for the initiation of research with the least cost of time and economic
  • Ongoing evaluation of the choice of sources so that delays can be recovered
  • Keep accurate and complete references of documents possible use
  • Structuring information into small valid documents (cards) enabling rapid query later.



Aims to find the directions in which research design improvements.

1. Examine sample and / or photographs of a design.

2. Identify the apparent inconsistencies and contradictions of design components (A) Visual, B) Functional).

  • These are small visual defects relating to the shape and the arrangement of the parts (mainly aesthetic).
  • Are those features that make operation of the object is not optimal.

3. Deduce the reasons for the inconsistencies.

  • Economics
  • Appearance of new materials
  • New manufacturing methods
  • New uses and customs, etc.. …

4. Provide possible solutions.


It’s about getting the information only known by users of the product or system in question.

You are at risk of missing important and critical that the results are not representative.

Where possible, there must be interviewed, trained and experienced.

We must encourage users to describe and demonstrate every aspect of their business.

We must turn the conversation to the aspects of user activity more appropriate.

You have to register circumstantial findings and critics during the interview.

Focused interview Interview undirected

The interviewer takes the initiative in the conversation, the user is encouraged to describe and demonstrate every aspect of their business.


It aims to collect useful information from a large number of individuals using a product and analyze the results statistically (Survey).

  • Identify design decisions that must be answered.
  • Identify the types of people who have access to necessary information.
  • Make a pre-pilot research
  • Write the guest with the necessary changes
  • Put into service the guest
  • Collect the answers
  • Extract and evaluate the responses.


  • You have to ask the minimum information necessary
  • Ask only what the respondent is able to answer
  • Require a short answer (YES / NO)
  • The answers must be answered without prejudice
  • There should be inquisitorial
  • They should be short and specific questions in words easy to understand
  • It should give examples of how to answer a question
  • Numerical quantifications, such as quantities, percentages are more precise than verbal
  • Questions should be organized by logical groups


Only 10% of respondents participating in the interview

Time costly

Telephone surveys are less expensive but more slowly

Mail surveys are less expensive but slower


  • We selected people and the numbers of these
  • Are acquaintances with names
  • Surveys are given in the hand
  • Surveys are collected in the hand
  • Draw conclusions
  • They turn to turn with the final conclusions


This method allows you to explore methods to predict behavior and performance limits of users about the new design.


  • Consult and observe users in a similar subject before designing a new one.
  • Undertake analysis of relationship between man and machine tasks in order to learn design skills and requirements that affect users.
  • Observe or simulate critical aspects of user behavior on the proposed design
  • Controlled experiments (classical ergonomics)
    • Abstraction Methods
    • Systematic experiments
  • Record the values assumable limits of error, harm, or discomfort.


Appropriate action can be acquired by learning to perform a task unconsciously, so the opinions of designers and users can be wrong and very convenient observation.

The observation and measurement errors of the times is the best source of information for learning.

Ergonomic experiments are slow, and need an expert for interpretation

We must take account of ergonomics to the design, but we can not obsess with ergonomics.


It serves to identify actions can produce the changes necessary in complex situations.

  • Identify weaknesses in an existing design or prototype
  • Identify different possible solutions
  • Apply or soften the constraints on these behaviors
  • Select the most promising tested constraints and less harmful to achieving the desired changes


  • The results are not necessarily repeatable. Situations change
  • The only systematic trials face the important objectives
  • It takes a long time to verify the most suitable solution


Its objective measurement at the costs and project objectives. Although the selection of measurement scales is not a design method in the exact sense of the word, it is difficult to apply the design methodology without the use of measurements.

For your application you must:

  • Asking the questions that must be answered by measurements.
  • Determining the acceptable error. (Range).
  • Select an appropriate measurement scale.
  • CALL or classificatory (colors, nationalities, tastes, careers, etc.).
    • ORDERLY (kinship, years, heights, etc.).
    • Ordinal (first, second, very good, moderate, etc.).
    • INTERVAL (Degrees Celsius, hours, etc.).
    • Proportional (grams, centimeters, cents, etc.).


The purpose of collecting and analyzing data is to avoid designer’s inability to discover, either by experience or by direct inspection, faults and magnitudes that a design should contain.

For every useful information may be collected large amounts of information are unusable.

All information to be collected by mechanical or statistical, and must be reduced to reflect the results and conclusions factsheets.

Research Methods of ideas.


It is a general method that is there are many ideas to draw a valid conclusion is to encourage a group of people to deliver ideas, concepts or solutions quickly. (you can do to generate ideas or to see which ideas are better, and so on. …, it does so many times as required and where it is needed.) is a method of black box because the ideas are created spontaneously .


1. You have to select a group of non-hierarchical. (people seem to not get carried away by others)

2. No idea should be criticized. (must be spontaneous, free and uninhibited)

3. There must be someone to record and evaluate the proposed ideas.

4. This method can be used at any stage of the project.

5. Brainstorming produces many ideas but not necessarily quality.

6. The main advantage is the recognition of brainstorming as a way extremely fast, capable of generating the variety of requirements that all research must begin

Steps to follow:

1. Form a group of people familiar with the subject from different areas of knowledge. This group should not be over fifteen people. (these people should not have the same knowledge, but should cover several fields)

2. For a few minutes each group member thinks and writes down the ideas that come to mind.

3. Each group member reads aloud their ideas. The rest of the group should try to relate their own ideas and to rectify or ratify your cards. (no more than 30 minutes). (as listen to others generate new ideas)

4. The director of the group collects the ideas and orders and ranks in related groups.

5. A different group of people who participated in the brainstorming should evaluate ideas. To get two or three interesting ideas satisfactorily justified the method.

B2 – Synesthesia

Synesthesia is an analogy of something we have seen and relate it to something we have been doing. Can be defined as the brain activity leading to new stimuli through feedback, based on careful use of analogies can transform a design problem (thinking that the analogy is the lifestyle designer) (is a mathematical relationship between 2 sets: around us and the problem we have)


1. Form a group of people who operate as independent departments. (which have nothing to do with the design)

2. Facilitate the group plenty of practice in previous analogies (if not tell them what solutions we had not specified). Types of analogies:

a) direct analogy: they are elements that exist naturally. (flight / wings, heat / sun).

b) Sterling or unreal is imagining things that do not exist. (a bed that floats, etc …)

c) Personal-body: when we imagine what would happen if we were ourselves the object and think what we would do ..

d) Symbolic-abstract: based on poetic metaphors (if I speak of what I relate to decision tree), (a port as an end, and so on. …)

3. Be subjected to a group of difficult problems that the parent organization or group can not solve.

4. The solution or solutions of the group are forwarded to the parent organization or designer for evaluation and implementation. Synesthesia seems more useful in the middle stages of design, ie, in examining a problem that has previously been shown to exist.

Synesthesia seems more useful to use in the middle stages of design, ie, in examining a problem, which has previously been shown to exist (you can use at any time, is to solve something that has already been raised).

B3-Disappearance of mental block

It is used to find new research directions when the search space has not provided a completely satisfactory solution. (widely used in visual inconsistencies)


  • Transformation rules, that can be applied to a bad solution (used when something does not work) Osbon Rules: are 9 rules
  • Do they propose new uses?
  • Minimize
  • Merge
  • Adapt
  • Replace
  • Reorganize
  • Investing
  • Enlarge
  • Edit

They are proposing other uses, etc … to generate ideas (and if I adapt well, and if I change it?) and generate ideas and see new perspectives.

  • Research new solutions between different parts of an unsatisfactory (When something is an inconsistency, relating the parties is to go in pairs and go looking.
  • Reorganize the design situation (look for something else, starting over almost, dig information, etc. …)

B4 – Tables morphological

Is a matrix. It is a mathematical element to find a relationship in that we are not nothing. A method of processing but also can say that is convergent. It aims to expand the exchange of research solutions for a particular problem in this method are two methods: The parameters or requirements and components or solutions, with them performing a matrix where the columns are arranged or put the parameters or requirements and on the abscissa or rows are placed components or solutions.

1. Define the functions or essential requirements (parameters) that any acceptable design must have.

2. Ask a number of alternative solutions (components) to each requirement.

3. Select by analysis a number of acceptable solutions.

4. Draw an array containing all the requirements and solutions.

Considerations to be taken:

It is important that the functions are selected independent of each other and not miss any essential function, the main difficulty of this method is to identify and clearly define the roles to consider.

Every function must be:

– Essential

– Independent

– Make-wide problem

– Few in a

Must see what objectives are fundamental, essential to fulfill. Must be independent, or to omit contradictory to each other (they have to be mutually exclusive) One way is to create a list of items and the grouping of which are common to ideas that do not cross. They must cover the whole problem, and should be few, try to handle a few but include the other grouping. For every requirement we pose solutions.

Processing methods and divergence.

Systematic research C1.

This is designed to solve design problems in a logical manner. (Mathematics) is a method very similar to the morphological categories.

1. Identify the components of the problem, set out the objectives and rank them. (You may give to us or because we have to fix)

2. Predicting the values that variables can assume (solutions). (In tables are morphological concrete solutions for everything, this is in general)

3. Adjust the values of each variable (analysis). 4. Select the best possible combinations.

C2-analysis values.

Can interact with a method of assessment. Its main objective is to reduce the cost of a solution or product.

1. Identify the element to analyze and value (approximate value).

2. Investigate alternatives to lower costs. (when we identify a solution should be investigated very high things to do the same and are cheaper).

3. Select the items functionally acceptable lower costs. (made with the former, we must see that we can give up to make something cheaper) (aesthetics, less functionality, …)

4. You need to present the redesign of three estates possible. (one of them or all) advisers. Technicians. Promoters.

C3. Investigation of the limits.

Aims to find the range within which acceptable solutions exist.

1. Write a number of possibilities to influence the matter. (That if there is a problem that is all things What influences this problem?, If size is a problem What things influence this problem?

2. Define an interval previously possible.

3. Make a simulator (sketch) in which the critical solutions are within the range defined.

4. Analyze and evaluate the best solution within these limits.For example: Find the minimum thickness for a stacking chair with polypropylene (plastic)


1. The chair should be stackable.

2. It has to withstand temporary deformation.

3. It should not produce cracks.

C4 cumulative Strategy

Serves to increase the analysis and evaluation.


1. Identify those critical objectives that must be admitted that the design is accepted by the developer and user.

2. Define the criteria that may prevent the delivery of these critical objectives.

3. Define the criteria by which they can recognize an unacceptable solution.

4. Designing a situation assessed for each criterion.

This strategy can be applied to any project where there are data and measurement techniques with which to identify and quantify critical.

C5-matrix interactions.

Defining matrix element: All parts or components or feature whose position is to be determined. The “Connection” is the relationship between the elements chosen.

Matrix interactions: It allows a systematic investigation between the elements of a problem when considering the most convenient way to arrange the parts into a whole. (consider the provision of what we want)

1. Define the elements in a design and type of connection.

2. Establish a matrix in which the elements can interact with one another (comparative table).

3. With some objective basis to decide the existence of connections between each pair of elements and assess their degree of connection. (as many as you want)

The matrix of interactions represents one of the most useful design aid arising from the investigation of systematic methods, nevertheless has some drawbacks:

1. high probability of error in recording the connections.

2. the large amount of time required to raise and evaluate all connections in arrays of many elements.

3. can not define all the important elements and their connections.

4. the difficulty that arises when all elements are not in the same level of importance.

C6-network interactions.

Always goes along with the matrix. Graphical sketch is used to model connections between elements extracted from the matrix method of interaction.


1. Perform matrix interactions.

2. Draw a map of points representing the elements together with lines representing connections.

3. Adjust the position of the points in order to simplify and clarify the network lines.

Considerations: The network is a complementary method for expressing matrix graphically the connections of the elements. Both methods are difficult to manage for a large number of elements. Draw a network is easy, the difficulty is to transform information into an ordered pattern that the brain can understand.

C7-AIDA. (Analysis of Interconnected Decision Area)

Find the solutions that are compatible with all the proposed solutions. (combined with morphological tables, matrices and networks). It is an unwieldy method serves to identify and evaluate all series compatible sub-solutions to a problem.


1. Identify various feasible options (which is what differentiates it from the morphological box) for each element.

2. Once done you must define the incompatibilities. (define degrees of incompatibility)

3. List all series of options that can be combined without inconsistency.

4. Assessed using predetermined criteria.

C8 – Method of decomposition of Alexander.

This method is very complicated, unworkable outside the PC, is used to big design projects. In any project fundamentals down first. The Alexander method is the opposite. Establishing “all” the elements (even the least important). To this list is an array. Each requirement should be compared with all others (so we see their level of dependence) After all requirements are grouped into one big small (all the same type are grouped together) and then all these new groups are compared with each other and are detected elements that recur in these groups.

A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D1 D2 A 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 B 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 C 1 1 1 2 1 1 D 1 2 1 Compatible Incompatible 0

The design is dedicated to only those elements that are repeated. It is the most complex and challenging test of systematic design has the advantage of helping designers to learn the connections between all possible solutions and the most basic requirements.

1. Comprehensively identify all requirements that influence the design model 2. Deciding the independence or dependence of each pair of requirements and record this decision in a matrix of interactions. It is said that two requirements are dependent, if anything is done to find the one facilitates or hinders the discovery of another.

3. Decompose the matrix internally connected in series, decomposing a matrix series is to group all those requirements dependent on each other and to respond to a common higher goal or requirement.

4. Organize these new series to find overlaps, similar to a network of interactions.

5. Focus design efforts in resolving overlapping or repeated conditions.

1st requirements,

2nd Matrix to know if the 2 are dependent or independent,

3rd cluster similar

4th comparing elements that are repeated,

5th design is performed based on these elements.

The cost in time for a breakdown of Alexander is very high to reach the largest number of defining requirements and possible crossing.

C9-rank design information. It is a systematic method of trying to organize everything done before. This method is practiced if we do not have a comprehensive understanding of what we achieve.


1. separate cards record each item of information gathered during the exploration of the problem. This we have previously collection through publications, interviews, surveys, tests … etc..

2. sort the cards into categories that correspond to the view of the problem. FOR EXAMPLE: – Terms of Service – Technology – Maintenance – Marketing – Security – Aesthetics – etc.

3. Using the selected series trying to identify the requirements and can find the schedule to repeat information on more than one category.

4. Review the key requirements in later if they are contradictory evidence or whether the objectives have changed.

D – Assessment methods

D1-Data List

Is intended to check the resolution of all the requirements laid systematically.