Three towers

The civil war: political and international dimension of the conflict. The consequences of the conflict. (TEACHER)

1 .- Political developments during the war

1.1 .- The Republican Spain

  1. Dismantling of the State and Social Revolution (July-September 1936)

The military uprising showed all the differences and tensions in the Popular Front, unions and labor organizations called for the government’s delivery of weapons to defend the Republic, but Casares Quiroga (Prime Minister) refused. A new government, republican left ordered the distribution of arms among the workers. Consequently the military rebellion led to the collapse of the State, which lost control of the situation. The social revolution advocated by the UGT, the CNT and the POUM, was chaotic.

  1. The government of Largo Caballero (September 1936-May 1937)

The new government included ministers communists and anarchists (Federica Montseny). The aim was to restore the authority of the Republican State redirecting the revolution, demanded the dissolution of the councils and committees emerged since the war began, trying to create a real army with unified command.

In October it approved the statute of autonomy of the Basque Country. With the advance Franco, the government moved to Valencia on November 6, 1936, in Madrid establishing a Defence Board under General Miaja.

Negative progress of the war, economic problems, the increasing influence of the Communists (Soviet aid Republican government) and the clashes within the Left (PCE, POUM-CNT) led to the events in Barcelona in May 1937. Largo Caballero was forced to resign.

  1. Negrin’s government (May 1937-March 1939)

Negrin’s priority was ending the revolutionary chaos. Integrated, PSOE, Republicans, Nationalists and the PCE. In the summer of 37, the government managed to dissolve the only revolutionary power that survived beyond the control of the state.

In 1938, war, economic stress, the increasing international isolation, increased discouragement among Republicans and suggested two possible strategies for dealing with the war:
Official position: Negrin with the support of the Communists and the PSOE defends “ultraza resistance” in the hope the outbreak of war in Europe.
Anarchist leaders, socialists (Indalecio Prieto), Republicans (ana), who were in favor of negotiating peace.

Thesis were imposed Negrin and communists but in May 1938, Negrin published his Thirteen points, offering peace to the Franco side, maintenance of the Republic and the call for free elections and new democratic government after the war.

The fall of Barcelona in January 1939 Azaña leads into exile and the Government. France and Britain recognized the Franco government, which increases morale. On March 5, 1939 Colonel Casado, commander of the army of the center, supported by the Socialist Julián Besteiro, trying to negotiate with Franco, but it only accepted unconditional surrender. March 28 Franco’s troops entered Madrid and after taking the last pockets Republicans (Valencia and Alicante), April 1 Franco declares the end of the war.

1.2 .- The National Spain

  1. The board of National Defence (July-September 1936)

The military gained prominence. In villages it is the Board of National Defense. His mission was the government of rebel territory, the real power is exercised every general in your industry: Franco, in Africa; Queipo de Llano, in the south, and Mola, in the north

The first steps: an end to the policy of the republic, banning trade unions and political parties, censored the press and public offices were removed republicanos.Brutal repression, mass arrests and executions.

  1. Franco, Head of State and Generalissimo (September 1936)

Sanjay’s death and the success of Franco in the release of the Alcazar of Toledo increased the popularity of it. On October 1, 1936 Franco was named Generalissimo of the Army and head of government of the Spanish State: All political and military power concentrated in it.

  1. The political and ideological unification (1937)

Franco promulgated the Decree of Unification of April 20, 1937, are all political organizations merged into one, Traditionalist Spanish Falange and of the Boards of the National Syndicalist Offensive (FET y de las JONS), known as “National Movement” and in which Franco became the supreme leader.

On July 1, 1937 Franco was supported by the Spanish church, defended the army rebellion and civil war as a religious crusade in defense of the faith and against the godless communism of the Republic.

  1. The first government of Burgos and the new totalitarian state (1938)

The first government included monarchists, conservative Catholics, traditionalists, Falange and the military. Franco was head of state and prime minister. The regime was intensely personal, inspired by fascist and Catholic.

His political program, went to annul any law of the Republic, the state reinstated the confessional, set aside the land reform, industry and business returned confiscated, banned political and civil liberties, abolished the autonomous status.

Repression means any individual suspected of sympathizing with the republic was persecuted, tens of thousands of people were executed and imprisoned

2 .- The internationalization of the conflict
Foreign intervention was of great importance in the development of the conflict.

2.1 .- The committee failed nonintervention
In connection with the “politics of appeasement” France and Britain tried to isolate the Spanish conflict by creating a committee of non-intervention to prevent d internationalize the conflict, preventing the delivery of arms to the rebels. It was a failure.

2.2 .- aid to rebels
The countries that directly helped the military rebels were those who held fascist or similar schemes (Germany, Italy and Portugal)

Hitler’s reasons were strategic and military help was the most decisive: the participation of the Legion Condor aircraft, soldiers and officers, industrial technology and economic aid.

Mussolini’s Italy I contribute troops (CTV) their aircraft into action (Battle of Guadalajara)

The rebels also counted with the collaboration of Portugal, Moroccan mercenaries and volunteer support anti Ireland, Romania and Portugal.

For his part, Pope Pius XI in August 1937 recognized the new Franco regime.
Supply of large American companies (Ford, General Motors and Texaco).