The Encomienda System and the Expansion of Empires

The encomienda system was a system where Spanish landowners forced Native Americans to pay taxes and provide labor. In return, the landowners were expected to protect them and ensure they were instructed in the Catholic faith. Indentured servants were servants who had a deal with their employer where the servant would work for a certain number of years, and after they completed those specific years, they would be free.

The Middle Passage was a route where African kings traded slaves to Europeans in exchange for European and American goods. African slave labor was used because there was an increased demand for the production of sugar. Renaissance Art was very focused on shading, perspective, and depth. Many painters would study the human body to get the proportions right. Frescos were also popular around this time. Mannerism focused on reflecting emotions rather than focusing on the proportions. Byzantine Empire fell when the Ottomans laid siege on Constantinople. Once the wall fell, the Ottomans sacked the city.

The Ottoman Turks established power during the Mongolian invasions by developing an elite guard and mastering new technology. They expanded their empire once they took down the Byzantine Empire, and then expanded even more when they conquered Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Arabia. The majority of society of the Ottoman Empire were Sunni Muslims. People were divided by class, and they were also allowed to practice other religions as well. Women were also regarded as almost equal to men. The most famous artwork is a mosque called the Hagia Sophia. However, they were also very different with the Ottomans being Sunni Muslims, and the Safavids becoming Shias.

The main source of conflict was the religion dispute between the Ottomans and the Safavids was that they were both trying to convert each other to their religion, and both were trying to conquer each other’s territory. The king of the Safavids then ordered a massacre on the Sunni Muslims when he conquered some territory. This then led to a war between the them, until the Safavid dynasty collapsed. The Moguls were able to to bring almost all of India under one ruler by using advanced artillery and successful negotiators. Their leader Akbar, was also very tolerant of other religions and cultures, which was rare at the time.

Life in Mogul society was mixed between Muslim and Hindu traditions. Cultures were also blended between Persia and India. A zamindar was a local official in Mogul India who received a plot of farmland from the government for farmland. They kept a portion of the taxes paid by the peasants in replace of a salary. Women from rich families were allowed to own land and to receive salaries. Women were also put on restrictions based on interpretation of Islamic law, which were generally adopted by Hindus. An example of these restrictions were isolating women. Sikhism is the religion that focuses on an infinite God that can be found in everyone and in all of nature. One can achieve unity with God through service to humanity, meditation, and honest labor. This religion also says that all faiths are different paths towards the same Creator. This religion spread with Gurus traveling around and preaching this religion, and it quickly gained followers with the openness of its’ customs. Amerigo Vespucci- an Italian merchant, explorer, and navigator; is the name behind “America”; recognized America as the new world. Ferdinand Magellan- a Portuguese explorer who is credited with masterminding the first expedition to circumnavigate the world. Pyotr the Great- founded St. Petersburg and upgraded Russia’s military. Suleyman I was the 10th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire when it reached the apogee of its military and political power. Babur- the founder of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent. The Ming dynasty was very controlling and wanted China to remain isolationist. They only allowed trade between the Dutch and British, and they created The Imperial City to convey the message of power and prestige. The Qing dynasty took control and restored peace and prosperity. With the Qing dynasty, they allowed China to become more open to the public and was ruling when China reached new heights. One of the cultural achievements of the Japanese during the Tokugawa era was the collapse of the Shogun. Napoleon centralized the French government, advanced education, created an underground sewage system, and expanded France’s territory. Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu- Oda Nobunaga unified the central part of Japan; Hideyoshi located the capital to Ōsaka, and Tokugawa became the daimyo of Ego (Tokyo) and shogun; three of them unified Japan. Baron de Montesquieu- French philosopher who came up with the separation of powers, which is used in the U.S. constitution Voltaire- a French Enlightenment writer who criticized the Catholic Church and valued freedom of religion and expression; wanted to separate the church and the state. Adam Smith- a Scottish economist who is considered the founder of modern sciences. The 1st Industrial Revolution differs from the second because the first took place in Europe, and it primarily focused on textile manufacturing. The 2nd Industrial Revolution took place all around the world and focused on technology. Triple Alliance= Germany, Austria-Hungary,Italy Triple Entente=Great Britain,France,Russia