Teoria Geo

Traditional societies: similar to rural societies (in political, economic and cultural ways to those that existed before the industrial revolution. Also called pre-industrial.

– Most of them work in agricultural and livestock farming activities.

– Their production is based on survival.

– They manufacture the things artisanaly.

– A very stable and controlled behaviour (by religious and modal codes).

– Comunication between them and villages is very limited. Only few have the opportunity to travel or hear news from the outside.

Industrial societies: are the product of industrialisation.

– Agricultural and livestock farming activities have been by industry.

– Part of the rural popul. has moved to the city.

– The bourgeoisie are the owners of companies.

– Laws and democracy determine their political management.

Post-ind. societies: emerged 20th C.

– Fully urban (big cities and huge metropolitan areas.

– The result of a service-based economy (now bigger than the industrial sector). 

– Info., knownl. and creativity are the driving forces behind the economy.

– Large increase and spread of information technology and communication make globalisat. possible. 

There are currently 230 million international migrants in the world (3% global populat.). The latest econ. crisis has reduced migration to more developed countries by 10%. Some examples of migratory flows are the Strait of Gibraltar, the channel between Italy / North Africa, Mexico-USA border. Others are influenced by history (links between former colonies and colonial powers). The 3 main reasons of migration are economic (lack jobs, low salaries, etc.), social (persecution, wars, etc.) and  natural fenomenom (floods, droughts, etc.)

Germany is the main destination for many of these migrants (people that can migrate because of the free movement of workers in the EU). Three quarter of immigrants arriving in Germany come from other EU countries. This wave of refugees is predicted to continue because there is no sign of solution. More than 75% of the world’s population live in societies where differences in income are higher. One-fifth of the population earns just 2% of global income. More than 1.2 billion people live in extreme poverty. The climate change is also a cause of migration. 

The origin of Spanish emigration is due to the discovery and colonisation of America. Many workers form Andalusia and Galicia and smaller numbers from León, Valencia, Extremadura went to Germany, Switzerland and France.

People from rural areas in Spain started to move to the industrialised centres of Catalonia and the Basque Country. Spain had one of the highest emigration rates in the world. Migrants come to Spain to scape poverty, war or political instability. 

Urban morphology is the study of the form of human settlements.

The three most common are the irregular (has an irregular shape, made up of narrow, winding streets, found in the city with a historic center, meaning that it was build before the 19th or 20th C.), orthogonal grid layout (has a square of rectangular shape, streets usually run at high angles to each other, is the most commonly used layout in history because it’s very simple) and radial or concentric urban pattern (it organises the city around an important central point, with a spider web-like shape. Provides easy access between the outskirts if the city and the center. 

Sustainable development means meeting the basic needs of the present population without damaging the environment of the future. As well as exploiting more and more resources and raw materials, we are also generating increasing amounts of waste, we must raise awareness of the culture of the 3 R’s. 

Planned obsolescence: strategy that the companies use to reduce the life of their products and maximise sales. One of the principles of planned obsolescence is to make products that cannot be repaired

Phoebus: cartel created by manufactures to control the production of the biggest light bulb. The goal was to dominate the market in light bulbs and ensure the profitability of their businesses. Among other measures, the decided that the average of life of the bulbs should not be guaranteed for more than 1000 hours. Over the years, this cartel was denounced and stopped working. 

Clifford Brookes: was the first industrial designer to mention perceived obsolenscence. 

The factors that help define the development of a country:

– The definition of development was based on the economic        wealth of a country (productions, exports, income, etc.). Nowadays, social factors like calorie consumption, healthcare and education are also used to measure development. 

More economically developed countries are located mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on socio-economic indicators, the USA, Canada, most West European countries, Japan, Australia and New Zealand have the highest standard of living.  

Less economically developed countries are located mainly in the Southern Hemisphere, because their economic development is slow and the income per person is very low. They depend on developed countries for technology, consumer goods and financial money that is borrowed.

Socio-economic indicators are data that allow us to get a quick idea of the development of a country. The UN Development Programme (UNDP) uses different, internationally recognised indicators. One of these indicators is the Human Development Index (HDI), which evaluates life expectancy at birth, education and gross national income per person. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) also have economic indicators. For example Gross Domestic Product (GDP) represents the goods and services produced in a country in a year. GDP is used to classify countries according to their wealth.