Key Concepts: (Change, Systems, Global, Interactions, Time, Place & Space)


Conversion, Transformation, or Movement from one form, state or value to another.

Inquiry into the concept of change involves understanding and evaluating causes, processes and consequences.

The causes and effects of change can be natural and artificial; intentional and unintentional; positive, negative or neutral.

Global Interactions:

The connections between individuals and communities, as well as their relationships with built and natural environments, from the perspective of the world as a whole.

The interdependence and interconnectedness of the larger human community, including conflict and cooperation.


Sets of interacting or independent components.

Systems provide structure and order in human, natural and built environments.

Systems can e static or dynamic, simple or complex

Social and natural systems rely on a state of equilibrium and are vulnerable to change from internal external force

Time, Place and Space:

The absolute or relative position of people, objects and ideas

Time: a continuum of significant events of the past, present and future

Place: places have value and meaning defined by humans

Space: where and why places and landscapes are located, including the social, economic and political processes that interact through or across space

Related Concepts:

Causality: Cause and Effect






Innovation and Revolution







Geography and Orography –

Geography = It wasnt called Greece: Hellas – Hellenes – The Romans named them Greci.

Balkan and Chalcidice Pminsulas, Asia Minos, Aegean Island, Estern Mediterranean. The sea is the center of Greek geography.

Orography = Islands: 

  • No cultivate land – only olives
  • No metal, minerals: nor wood
  • Sea: fishing
  • Lonia: cultivate land
  • 80% mountains
  • Average altituae: 2000m above sea level
  • Mount Olympus – 3000m above sea level
  • Geographic isolation: Mountains  impede communication.
  • Autarchy: Each one had their own law

Chronology (The stages of Greece)

12th c.  B.C.E

8th c.  B.C.E

6th c.  B.C.E

4th c.  B.C.E        2nd c.  B.C.E

Dark Age 

Archair Epoch

Classic Period

Hellenistic Period


(también es de Archair Epoch)


(también es de Dark Age)

Appearance of:

  • Medicine: Hippocrates
  • Philosophy: Thales of Miletus
  • Ethics: socrates
  • History: Herodotus
  • Biology: Aristoteles
  • Mathematics: Pythagoras
  • Empire: Alexander The Great

Spread of Greek

Culture throughout all the territories. 

Death of Alexander The Great

Roman Conquest

Contributions = 

Sciences and disciplines: Biology, Medicine, History, Philosophy, Ethics, Trigonometry, Geometry

Aristotle: The Scientific Method

Leucippus and Democritus: The Atom

The Alphabet

The Library

Culture of publicness: Public life – What matters if what I do, not what I think.

Trial by Jury:

The Theatre: A representation of reality

Spaces destined for communication.

Agora – Discussion, oratory

The Olympic games

The Sea: Very advanced ship.

The lighthouse

Political Systems: 

Monarchy:One ruler

Oligarchy:A group of rulers

Plutocracy: The rich govern

Tyranny:Get power by illegal means

Democracy:The people

Aristocracy: The illustrious

Greek Characters (20): Archimedes, Hippocrates, Eratosthenes, Euclid, Heron of Alexandria, Pythagoras, Thales of Miletus, Empedacles, Hipparchus, Aristophanes, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Callicrates, Phidias, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle.

Greek Art: 

Canon of Polykleitos:

  • It established human porpotions
  • The canon determines our perception
  • Aesthetics – Beauty
  • “Man is the measurement of all things”
  • Important for constructions

Greek Architecture (remember the 3 Greek Orders)

According to Greek thinking:

  • Public Spaces
  • Human proportions
  • Aethetic
  • “Man is the measurement of all things”
  • Monumental, not colossal



Italian Peninsula

Only 2 Mountain Chains: The Alps and the Ape-nines

Rivers and Resources: Po, Arno and Tiber

Abundant Resources: Fertile Land, Hostile Seas

They weren’t good sailors and traders: Peasants


Foundational Legend —Tilos Livius: Author

Romulus and Remus — Rhea Silvia

Alba Longa — Lupa — Adoptive Parents (thieves) — they grew up and recovered the throne.

Remus was killed by his brother

Romulus founded Rome

Chronology (The stages of Rome)

Monarchy: 8thc. B.C.E / 753 B.C.E.  Foundation of Rome

Republic: 6thc. B.C.E / 509 B.C.E 

Empire: 1stc. B.C.E / 27 B.C.E      Birth of Jesus Christ

Year 0

Division of the Roman Empire

Rome Byzantium: 4thc C.E / 395 C.E

Fall of Rome

Middle Ages Byzantium: 5thc. C.E / 476 C.E ——15thc. / 4453 C.E

Fall of Byzantium


Roman Law — Advanced legal System

Imperialist Economy — Expansionism

Functional City Planning

Sidewalks and Street drainage


Christian Religion

Language: Latin

Art: Mosaic

Important Kings and Emperors.



Tarquinius Superbus

Numa Pompilius

Tullus Hostilius

Ancus Marcius

Tarquinius Priscus

Servius Tullius




Marcus Aurelius