8.1. The seventeenth-century Habsburgs. Government of valid and internal conflicts.

It is known to Austrians under the monarchs of this dynasty that reigned in the seventeenth century (Philip III, Philip IV, Charles II) for its light weight and political relevance: His reign coincided with a time of crisis, demographic, economic and policy, which helped the Hispanic monarchy lost power and European hegemony it had in the previous century.

The Hapsburgs ruled not personally under his kingdoms, but were supported by valid, his absolute trust people to whom he delegated the major decisions of government. The figure of valid, similar to other European kingdoms of the era, not only due to the lack of interest in the power of individual monarchs, but the growing complexity of the tasks of government and the increasingly complex administrative machinery.

The favorite was not an institutional position, but was a nomination based on trust that the kings had in some members of the aristocracy.

· · Reign of Philip III (1.598-1.621): stresses the Duke of Lerma, favorite of King for much of his reign. He accumulated great power and enrich himself personally as well as being immersed in various corruption cases that forced his retirement in 1618. His own son, the Duke of Uceda, leading the opposition camp to his father, succeeded to all his posts, but did not hold as absolute power.
· Reign of Philip IV (1.621-1.665): stands the figure of the Count-Duke of Olivares, the most famous of favorites, a man gifted in politics, but whose action led government to restore the hegemony of Spain and the prestige of monarchy important crop failures. With its central, unifying political unpopularity earned in different realms. He was succeeded in high favor (1643) his cousin and political foe, the Duke de Haro.
· Reign of Charles II (1.665-1.700): inability of the king expresses that led to the valid happen, highlighting Nithard Jesuit father, Fernando Valenzuela and Juan José de Austria.

The seventeenth century was a time of decline for the Hispanic monarchy, since not only lost the leadership it had held in Europe, but lived a deep internal crisis.

In the reign of Philip III (1.198-1.621) as the main conflict highlights the expulsion of the Moors (1.609-1.610). This minority was accused of continuing to practice the Muslim religion and maintain their customs. They were also suspected as possible contributors to the Turkish pirates in the Mediterranean. In 1609 Philip III decreed the expulsion of Castile, Aragon and Valencia. Thus some 300,000 Moriscos were compelled by force to leave their land and way of life. As a result there was a population decline and a crisis of farming and craftsmanship especially in Aragon and Valencia, the latter being the most affected realm. The stately nobility of these areas was compensated with the properties of the Moors.

In the reign of Philip IV (1.621-1-665), his favorite, Count-Duke of Olivares, launched a series of reforms to increase the resources of the monarchy. The Count-Duke wanted to apply in all kingdoms of Castile model (Greater Memorial, 1,624), for which launched a series of administrative, fiscal and military (Union de Armas, 1,626). It was all realms equally contribute to the effort outside of the monarchy., But this conflicted with the rights and interests of the different realms, so that the measures resulted in a general rejection, which were achieved through theCrisis of 1,640 with the rebellion of Catalonia and Portugal. This crisis took place to the Count-Duke of Olivares, who was deposed by the king.

The reign of Charles II (1.665-1.700) was marked by mental and physical weakness of the king. This led to internal struggles for power, especially during the regency of his mother, Mariana of Austria, between father Nithard and Fernando Valenzuela, and the latter with John Joseph of Austria. From 1680 with the coming to power of the Duke of Medina and the count of Oropesa one enters a calmer phase, which is taken to stabilize the finance and currency stabilization. In this reign there was also a social protest, staged by peasants to the difficult living situation. But the biggest problem of the succession was finally reign as the lack of direct heirs of the king will culminate in the War of Spanish Succession in the early eighteenth century.

8.2. The crisis of 1,640

During the reign of Philip IV (1.621-1.665) his favorite, Count-Duke of Olivares, initiated a program of reforms to strengthen the royal authority, to achieve unity between the different kingdoms and greater fiscal contribution to the burdens of the monarchy. The Count-Duke also implemented the Union de Armas (1,626), by which the various territories of the Spanish Empire should contribute equally with men and money to keep a powerful army, to defend the interests of the Hispanic monarchy.

The Crown of Aragon opposed the Union Arms, especially Catalonia, where in 1640 a serious revolt broke out based upon:
· · The forced recruitment of men to the Thirty Years War.
• The poor performance of the royal troops at the border between France and Catalonia.
• The economic crisis that has lived the Principality of Catalonia.

The popular uprising in Barcelona was marked by the reapers. Following the viceroy was killed and the rest of the royal authorities had to flee. It’s called the Corpus of Blood (June 1640). The rebels were under the sovereignty of France and requested military aid. The rebellion was severe and lasted until 1652, when Louis XIII was found that even less respectful of their laws and that Catalonia was interested only as an economic colony and military outpost. All this together with the ravages of war and plague unleashed the surrender of Barcelona, which led to a negotiated settlement: the revolutionaries were pardoned and remained the law of Catalonia, which contributed to the pacification.

In the same year of 1640 another rebellion broke out, ending with the independence of Portugal: the kingdom also opposed the Union of Arms and the introduction of new taxes. Furthermore, in Portugal there was a grave disappointment that their colonies in Southeast Asia had been invaded by the Netherlands, without having been done anything about it. The uprising prompted by the recruitment of troops, was supported by the Church of that kingdom. The Duke of Braganza was proclaimed king. Philip IV, held on too many fronts (Thirty Years War, rebellion, Catalan) failed to prevent the independence of Portugal .

In the forties of the seventeenth century there was conflict or ters in Naples and Sicily for reasons similar to those mentioned (tax burden, Union de Armas), which led to the abolition of new taxes and the replacement of the Viceroy.

The serious internal problems and external defeats led to Philip IV to dismiss Olivares (1,643), and to appoint a new favorite,Luis de Haro, although later the king personally led government action.