tema 5(2)

2.Implicit learning: “is input processing without such an intention”.(There is not intention to learn something).3.Dekeyser:implicit learning as “learning without awareness of what is being learned”.(You aren’t aware of learn something)(Implicit learning is defined as “learning without such an intention”)–(Not the same as inductive learning,the difference is that the last is explicit).(Inductive put explicit learning).EX.-Reading for pleasure(implicit learning-you’ve no intention to learn English,only pleasure).-Studying the rules of passive sentences(expl.learning-you’re aware that learning is taking place there is an intention).EXPLIC.LEARNING: Intentional/deliberate(it’s intention,you’re conscious of learn something.Controlled process(you have control over the situation).Awareness of what is learned(i’m studying the passive voice,so I’m aware of this learning).Selective attention to input & conscious induction of rules(your attention is focus on one particular characteristics of the input-selective attention;close attention from the input;there’s a conscious induction(learn)of the rules.Outcome:expl.knowledge,stored in explicit-declarative memory.IMPLIC.LEARNING:Incidental’no intention’(when you read for pleasure,your intention is only read,not to learn;it’s an accidental learning,you don’t have intention).Automatic process(you have no control over the situation;something takes place,like an automatic car).No awareness of what is learned(when you read for pleasure,you aren’t aware that learning is taking place).No selective attention to features of input & unconscious induction of rules(when you read for pleasure,you don’t put attention in every single word,unconsciously you’re obtaining the rules of learning without know it).Outcome:implicit knowledge,stored in implicit-procedural memory(the best example is L1 learning because when you’re learning your L1,it’s implicit learning because you’re not aware of the rules;you learn implicitly->memory).You practice these rules explicitly, you use them and then you aren’t aware of this, practicing them, the learning become implicit).(If you need your implicit knowledge, you go to your brain and recover this implicit knowledge into explicit knowledge).C)Explicit instruction.Necessary?& when?(Teacher is explaining you some grammatical rules)-Implicit instruction:meaning-based (e.g. communicative activities, tasks based on interaction).-Explicit instruction:focus on accuracy and form(e.g. filling gaps, grammar exercises).Pattern

PPP:PRESENTATION;PRACTICE;PRODUCTION.*Positive role of attention to form(explicit teaching of grammar and explicit error correction).WHEN?1-Matthews et al. (1989): explicit instruction is beneficial later.2-Reber (1989): the earlier explicit instruction is provided, the better.3-Ellis (1994): important with more complex language. Why?Aim of explicit instruction-To make aspects of the input salient.D)Which learning for which elements of the language?-Reber and Krashen:implicit learning is advantageous for complex structures.-Degree of usefulness of explicit teaching for different levels of difficulty(Dekeyser, 2005).Rule difficulty & Role of explicit instruction:-Very easy(not useful’not necessary’)-Easy(Speeding up explicit learning process->accelerate the learning process).-Moderate(stretching ultimate attainment->help you to go further/beyond your limits).-Difficult(Enhancing later implicit acq by increasing chances of noticing).-Very diff.(not useful’not effective’).-Problems:-Subjective difficulty of the rule(something is easy for me but it is not for other).-Objective difficulty of the rule.Not only complexity.(How to distinguish the difficulty of the rule).Novelty, abstractness of semantic categories and salience are also imxtant.E)Age & implicit vs. explicit learning.-What type of learning do you think adults and children use most when learning?*Children:implicit learning*Adults:explicit.WHY?*Children:UG & lang. Specific learning mechanisms outside awareness(innatist position by Chomsky):biological programme for lg.–special ability to discover the rules of the language by ourselves.CRITICAL PERIOD:btw early childhood and puberty–children gradually lose the ability to learn the TL through implicit mechanisms.(*It’s better when we are younger because we can learn easier the knowledge and concepts).-Adults use + analytical abilities to think about the structure of the L2 & compare it with their L1.*Consequences: for teaching.Children:full immersion to capitalize their implicit learning skills.(It’s better start to speaking English).(More exposure the lg).-Adults:formal rule teaching to draw on their explicit learning skills(explicit learning-special ability).

3.2.Interface of knowledge types.Interface of knowledge types:2 types of learning:- Explicit & implicit knowledge contribute to the development of L2 proficiency.(We’re going to be contributed confidence).(Strong references)(We develop our competence through the target lang.)(Krashen, i.e. is +imxtant implicit learning)(1type of learning over the others)->he uses different types in a specific lg.-3 interface positions,3 different points of view.