tema 5(2)

3:COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN SLA:How our mind works when it receives and processes the information. How the information that we processes, because to be knowledge and it works in our mind.3.1 KNOWLEDGE TYPES:Acquired vs. Learned knowledge; declarative vs. procedural knowledge; and Implicit vs. explicit learning knowledge. We are declarative and procedure knowledge stored in our brain.* How (linguistic) knowledge is acquired and organized in the brain: Stephen Krashen(The Monitor Model)5 Hypothesis of SLA:-Input hypothesis-Monitor model-Natural order hypothesis-Learning acq hypothesis-Affective filter.3.1.1Acquired vs. learned knowledge:The Monitor Model,1st described by Krashen in the 1970s,has had a long effect on the field.Krashen(1982)assumed that 2L learners have 2independent means of developing knowledge of a 2L-one way is through what he called acq. & the other,learning.ACQ is a process similar,if not identical to the way children develop ability in their 1st lg.Lg acq. is a subconscious process;Lg acquirers aren’t usually aware of fact that they’re acquiring lg,but are only aware of the fact that they’re using the lg for communication.The 2nd way to develop competence in a 2L is by lg learning.It refers to conscious knowledge of a 2L,knowing the rules,being aware of them,& being able to talk about them.Knowledge learned through one means(learning)cannot be internalized as knowledge of other kind(acq).3.1.2 Declarative vs. procedural knowledge(Anderson, 1983, 1985).-When we receive information it is placed in our memory as: declarative or procedural knowledge.Also known as: Knowing about/that(declarative) vs. knowing how(procedural):-Declarative:I know the capital of France is Paris, ‘I know that…’-Procedural:I know how to swim, ‘I know how…’*Declarative knowledge:knowledge about facts,concepts & the relationship between them.-Ex.The sun rises in the east and sets in the west/The boiling point of water is 100ºC. “THESE ARE FACTS”.-Organized around hierarchical structures called: schemata(pl.form,sing.is it).-Schemata:Mental framework we use to represent and organise new and old information. The information is gonna be structured in our schemata(marco mental).Acquisition of new information follows 2 procedurals; (Paget, 1954):1.Assimilation:New information is incorporated into existing (old) knowledge. Integrating this new information into our old knowledge.2.Accommodation:New information cannot be assimilated and existing schema must be replaced or reorganized.*Task of teachers:help learners develop new schemata as well as new connections btw old and new schemata.Union of the old knowledge already known by the student + the new knowledge presented to the student.*Procedural knowledge:knowledge of how to do things. Procedures and skills necessary for operating on a specific context(e.g. playing tennis,driving,swimming, walking).We are not born with the procedural knowledge;we need practice before to acquire it.Firstly we need to acquire the declarative knowledge and later on we acquire, we are ready to acquire the procedural knowledge.Procedural knowledge is knowledge that starts being declarative and later on in begins being the procedural knowledge.-Automated through practice(declarative–procedural knowledge).EX.Driving.Declarative knowledge->Process of learning(expl.learning)->through practice(proceduralization)->Procedural knowledge(automatization).-Spontaneous language use:procedural knowledge(when we speak).But highly planned instances of language use(e.g. preparing a question):declarative knowledge.-Characteristics of declarative and procedural knowledge:*Declarative knowledge:knowledge we are aware of and can articulate clearly.Accessible to conscious awareness as acquiring our 2nd language,we are aware of it.We can go to our memory and recollect some explicit knowledge.Knowledge put into words.*Procedural knowledge:implicit;relatively inaccessible.Difficult to verbalize.As acquiring our 1st language,we’re not aware of our “creencias”,if you try to recollect information from our procedural knowledge is so difficult.Difficult to put this knowledge into words. Difficult but not impossible.-Where are declarative and procedural knowledge stared in our brain?Long-term memory:1.(Explicit)-declarat.memory.2.(Implicit)-procedural memory.3.1.3.Implicit vs Explicit learning/knowledge:(Dekeyser,1997,2005).One particular type of knowledge related to the distinction:declarative vs. procedural knowledge->acq.implicit learning & knowledge is explicit.-Definitions:1.Hulstijn:Explicit learning “is input processing with the conscious intention to find out whether the input information contains regularities and, if so, to work out the concepts and rules with which these regularities can be captured”.-The stage of learning where you receive and process the input.-Conscious process: you are aware of this process.-You have the intention to learn something.-Conscious effort to work out the rules behind the input you receives.