What is a circuit board?
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads, and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. A printed circuit board has pre-designed copper tracks on a conducting sheet. The pre-defined tracks reduce the wiring, thereby reducing the faults arising due to loosen connections. One simply needs to place the components on the PCB and solder them.
What are the different ways to make a Circuit Board?
There are in all three basic methods to make a PCB:
1. Iron on Glossy paper method.
2. Circuit by hand on PCB (marker method) 
3. Laser cutting edge etching.
PCB Design:
PCB design is usually done by converting your circuit’s schematic diagram into a PCB layout using schematic and footprints.
What Materials are Required to Make a Circuit Board? 
• schematic
• real footprints
• millimeter paper
 • vellum paper
• marker (Edding 3000) 
• saw
• kitchen scrubber
 • mini drill
• fine-tip permanent marker 
• electronics components
• tin solder and tin welder 
• acid solution 

PCB market method

STEP 1: PCB design
-From your schematic and real footprints, design a valid PCB routing design in millimeter paper.
-Take a mirrow print out in vegetal paper
STEP 2: Cut the Copper Plate for the Circuit Board
-Cut the copper board according to the size of the layout using a hacksaw or a cutter.
-Next, rub the copper side of the PCB using steel wool or abrasive sponge scrubs. This removes the top oxide layer of copper. Sanded surfaces also allow the lines from the marker to stick better.
STEP 3: Transfer the PCB Print onto the Copper Plate
Circuit by Hand on PCB. Using the circuit as a reference, draw a basic sketch on the copper plate with a pencil. Once your sketch looks good, trace over it with a permanent black marker.
STEP 4: Etch the Plate
First, put on rubber or plastic gloves.
Take a plastic box and fill it up with some water.
Dissolve 2-3 teaspoons of ferric chloride power in the water.
Dip the PCB into the etching solution for approximately 30 mins. The FeCl3 reacts with the unmasked copper and removes the unwanted copper from the PCB. This process is called Etching. Use pliers to take out the PCB and check if the entire unmasked area has been etched or not.
STEP 6: Cleaning, Disposal, and the Final Touches for the Circuit Board
A few drops of thinner on a pinch of cotton wool will remove completely the toner/ink on the plate, exposing the copper surface. Rinse carefully and dry with a kitchen paper. Trim to final size and smoothen edges with sandpaper.
Now, drill holes using a PCB driller and solder all your cool components to the board.

Guide to soldering
Essential Tools and Supplies:
These tools are the bare-minimum essentials required for soldering:
A Soldering Iron Stand will keep your iron from rolling around and protect both you and your work surface from burns. Most stand holders come with a sponge and tray for cleaning your soldering iron.
Standard 60/40 lead/tin Rosin Core Solder 
Diagonal Cutters
You need a pair of Diagonal Cutters for trimming component leads after soldering.
Solder Wick
Solder Wick is way to clean excess solder from a joint.

•Heat the Iron
Plug an and/or turn on your soldering iron to warm up. If you are using a temperature-controlled iron, set it to 700F/370C for 60/40 or 750F/400C for lead-free solder. While the iron is heating dampen the sponge with a little bit of water.
•Clean the Iron
Wipe the tip of the hot iron on the damp sponge to clean off any oxidation. 
•Tin the Tip
Apply a small amount of solder to the tip and wipe again to tin the tip. You should have a thin, shiny layer of molten solder on the tip of your iron.
•Make sure that the joint is clean
Dirt, oxidation and oily fingerprints can prevent the solder from wetting the solder-pad to create a solid joint.
•Immobilize the Joint
The parts being joined must not move during the soldering process. If there is any movement as the molten solder is solidifying, you will end up with an unreliable ‘cold joint’.
•Steady the Board
A vise is a good way to keep the board from moving around while you try to solder it.
•Heat the joint
Heat the joint with the tip of the iron. Be sure to heat both the solder pad and the component lead or pin.

•Apply the solder
Touch the end of the solder to the joint so that it contacts both the solder pad and the component lead or pin. It should melt and flow smoothly onto both the pin and the pad.
•Let It Flow
Keep heating the solder and allow it to flow into the joint. It should fill the hole and flow smoothly onto both the solder pad and the pin or component lead.
•Let It Cool
Once enough solder has been added to the joint and it has flowed well onto both the component lead and the solder pad, remove the iron from the joint and allow it to cool undisturbed.
•Trim the Lead
Use your diagonal cutters to trim the lead close to the board.


The design begins by looking at the scheme, then I make a “sketch” to make it easier when doing it in the millimeter part. Once the “sketch” has been made and verified that the connections are correct, I proceed to do it in the millimeter part, there, with the measurements of the traces, I begin to design the circuit (PCB) in the millimeter part, while I am doing it I I guide with the “sketch”. Once the design is finished in the millimeter part, I take a vegetal paper and trace the components with the center of their nodes on one side and on the other fold the tracks with the complete nodes.