t1 t2

Frequency adverbs*





Hardly ever/rarely/ it’s rare for me to…


would for the future in past

When talking about the past we can use would to express something that has not happened at the time we are talking about:

In London she met the man that she would one day marry.

would for conditionals

We often use would to express the so-called second and third conditionals:

If he lost his job he would have no money.

would for polite requests and questions

Would you open the door, please? (more polite than: Open the door, please.)

Dazed: atordit

Distraught: distret

Stumped: ensopegat

Bewildered: desconcentrat

Flustered: nerviòs

Disorientated: desorientat

Befuddled: confuso

Baffled: perplejo

Implicate: Implicar

Exonerate: liberar

Acquit: ya absuelto

Remand: prisión preventiva

Convict: condenar

Detain: detener

Release: poner en libertad

Penalty: castigo

Plea: súplica

Prosecutions: acusación

Testimony: testimonio

Defendant: acusado

Present perfect: Unspecified point in the past. 1. Actions in the past and continue up in the present (often with for and since) 2. An experience with ever, never, already, just and yet. Form: Subject + have+ participle verb.

1. I’ve had this photo of my aunt for over twenty years

2. We’ve never discovered who took the photo

Present perfect continuous: Actions in the past and continue up in the present, an action which has repeatedly in the past and that still happening now. (often with for and since). The emphasis is on the duration of the activity.

Form: Subject + have + be (been) in participle + verb –ing

Past perfect:Subject + had + participle verb. Use: To talk about actions or events yhat happened before another action or event in the past, often with time expressions like: by the time, when, before, after and until I bought the sculpture

-The artist had died before

Past perfect continuous: Subject + have + be (been) in participle + verb –ing. Use: Ongoing activity leading up to a more recent past.

The painting had been losing its bright colours , so we took it to an artist to have it restored.

Background information about an event

He’d been working on the portrait for months

Future perfect: Subject + will + have + participle verb. An action that will be completed before a definite time in the future: By this time this year, they will have closed down the housing scheme

Future perfect continuous: Subject + will + been + verb –ing

Perfect infinitive: to have + been + participle verb

Perfect infinitive: –ing: (to) have –ing + participle verb

Future tenses:

Present simple:To express future when we refer to events which are part of timetable.

-The train leaves at 7:30

Present continuous:To talk about a definite plan for the near future:

– We are having a party tonight.

– We are going to the beach tomorrow morning.

Describing change

Change over time: evolve, adapt

Completely change, become different: Transform, alter

Change for the better: Reform,improve, progress, enhance

Change back to a former form: Reverse, restore and revert

Influence something: Shape, determine.

Phrasal verbs:

A bone of contention: a subject of disagreement between people

All skin and bonesextremely thin

Jumped out of her skin: moved suddenly as a result of shock or surprise

Saved his skin: escaped from, injury, punishment or death

Close at hand: within reach, nearby

In sb hands: controlled or looked by someone

Made no bones about: was frank and open about something

Negative adjectives:

Aloof: Apartado

Callous: cruel

Jittery: Nervioso

Obnoxious: Desagradable

Wary: Cauteloso

Uptight: Tiesa

Tacky: hortera

Gullible: Crédula/ Ingenuo

Gruesome: Horrible

Sulky: Malhumorada

Positive adjectives:

Debonair: amable

Righteous: Honrado

Self-assure: Seguro de sí mismo

Unbiased: Imparcial

Upbeat: Optimista

Zany: Loco

Dashing: Elegante

Thrifty: Ahorrador

Alluring: Atractivo

Steadfast: Firme/inalterable

More vocabulary:

Annoying: Molesto

Narrow-minded: cerrado de mente

Carefree: despreocupado

Mean: Mezquino

Creative: Creativo

Conceited: creído

Sarcastic: Sarcástico

Stubborn; tenaz

Ambitious: Ambicioso

Open-minded: De mentalidad abierta

Bad-tempered: malhumorado

Dull: aburrido

Loyal: fiel

Talkative: parlanchin

Spontaneous: espontáneo

Charming: encantador

Good-natured: Bueno

Laid back: despreocupado

Dis-headed: creído

Trunk: baúl

Pasta maker: máquina de hacer pasta

Matrioshka dolls: muñecas rusas

Poncho: poncho

Sew: coses

Knit: tejes

Vocabulary llibre:

Grumpy: Gruñoso

Introverted: Introvertido

Erratic: Errático

Courteous: Cortés

Abrupt: Abrupta

Bizarre: Extraño.

Rigorous: Riguros.

Anecdotal: Anecdòtica