T 2 and 3 History

  • England: Revolutions and parliaments

King Charles I wanted to govern without regard to Parliament, and political opposition was radicalized in the hands of the bourgeoisie and the popular groups. It sparked a revolution and in 1642 civil war broke out between royalists and parliamentarians. Charles I was defeated, and executed in 1649 (First English Revolution).

In 1688 the outbreak of the Second English Revolution that led to the oath of William and Mary Bill of Rights, the act by which monarchs became parliamentarians. In the English Parliament were divided into two parties: the Tories and Whigs.

  • The Enlightenment.

The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that spread throughout Europe and America in the eighteenth century. Its ideology was reflected in the encyclopedia, a book published in France between 1751 and 1772. The Encyclopedia summarizing all the knowledge of his time and paid special attention to the popularization of science. The characteristics were:

  • Renaissance Development anthropocentrism
  • Confidence in human reason
  • Faith in progress, which made the picture to be optimistic about the future
  • Right to happiness in this world.
  • Nature is considered the beginning of the good.
  • Enlightened despotism

In the second half of the eighteenth century, several absolute monarchs promoted a series of reforms aimed at achieving <<Happiness>> of his subjects. His ideal was encapsulated in the phrase: “Everything for the people, but without the people.” Enlightened despotism boost reforms in all areas:

  • Politics: the State was organized centrally and laws were common throughout the kingdom, which applied to officers.
  • Company: In some countries took measures such as the abolition of serfdom and the decline of the privileges of the nobility.
  • Economy: reforms were carried out as the diffusion of new crops, reforestation of lands, etc..
  • Culture: the academies were created and promoted institutions to promote know-how.
  • Religion: enlightened despotism proclaimed religious tolerance, but limited the power of the clergy and the papacy.

The most prominent representatives of this form of government were: Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine II of Russia, Charles III of Spain and Joseph II of Austria.

  • The European Balance

Highlighted the powers: Britain, France, Prussia and Austria, whose rivalry for hegemony continental or sea led to a series of conflicts:

  • The War of Succession of Austria: pitted France against Austria and Prussia. Prussia gained territories Austria (Silesia).
  • The Seven Years War: He fought to Britain and France for control of colonial trade. The Peace of Paris ended the war. France had to cede to Britain the U.S. territories of Canada and India. It also meant the decline of France and the huge expansion of Britain.

  • Change of dynasty

When he died childless King Charles II of Spain, broke the Spanish Succession war that originated by the aspiration to the throne of a Bourbon, Philip of Anjou and a Habsburg Archduke Charles. Entailed:

  • An international war: the Clash of France with Britain, Austria, United Provinces, Prussia, Savoy and Portugal, who did not want to increase the dominance of the Bourbons in Spain.
  • A civil war supported the Spanish crown to Philip of Anjou, and the crown of Aragon to the Archduke Charles.

The war ended with the Treaty of Utrecht. Philip of Anjou was recognized king of Spain. Great Britain won the Spanish territories and colonial concessions in America. Austria received the Spanish Netherlands and Spain possessed territories in Italy, except Sicily, which was ceded to the Duke of Savoy.

  • Enlightened despotism in Spain
  • Foreign Policy: Spain allied with France. Participated in the War of Austrian Succession, War of the Seven Years War and the 13 American colonies of Great Britain
  • Policy and administration: the decrees were promulgated New Plant.

It created the office clerks, established a mayor and eliminated the courts of the Crown of Aragon and established the Parliament of the kingdom.

  • The Political Problems:
  • Domestic Policy: Esquilache the riot broke out. The mutineers demanded the king’s dismissal of the foreign ministers and reducing food prices, the king had to yield to these demands.
  • Foreign Policy: Carlos III supported the revolt of the British North America against Great Britain, this support would turn against Spain, as in Spanish America began to emerge the idea of independence following the example of the United States of America independent since 1776.

Item 3.

  • Economic and social change

In the second half of the eighteenth century, began the industrial revolution, which profoundly transformed the existing social economic relations in Western Europe. In the economic sphere of the industrial revolution there are two phases:

  • During the first phase of the first changes occurred with the use of new energy sources, the use of machinery and the concentration of workers in factories. The development of workers resulted in better distribution of raw materials and manufactured goods.
  • In the second phase, the industrial revolution spread to other European countries, USA and Japan. Using new forms of corporate finance, many inventions were developed and applied electricity
  • Social classes replaced the estates, stood the bourgeoisie and industrial workers or proletarians, who were paid a salary for their work.
  • First industries and the “revolution of steam”
  • The textile industry. The technical innovations were constant and allowed the mechanization of spinning and weaving.

The new organization of work, was the transformation of the manufacturing industry.

  • The steel industry. Was transformed by the coal or coal, and the use of blast furnaces. The steel industry provided machinery and tools for agriculture, industry and transport.
  • The steam engine. Devised by James Watt, was the invention of the early highlights of the Industrial Revolution, it was used in the textile, mining and steel. Then used in steamships and, above all, on the railroad.
Working conditions of the labor movement

Very long working hours. Lack of security and hygiene at work, child labor, low wages, Dismissal free None of holidays and social security to workers and prohibition of association.

  • Labor movement

The labor movement made great strides by developing new forms of struggle, the emergence of capitalist-leaning ideologies and new forms of labor organization. Highlighted:

The progress of trade unionism, the use of the general strike and the emergence and spread of two revolutionary ideologies, Marxism and anarchism.

  • Marxism is a political and economic theory based on the thinking of Karl Marx and Friedrich and developed in Capital.

Marxist ideology advocated a change in the economic, social and political through the class struggle. The working class had to confront the bourgeoisie, to achieve his disappearance and seize power to establish the dictatorship of the proletariat. Then undo the colectivizarían capitalist system and the means of production, would lead to establish a classless society.