Symptoms and Signs of Peripheral Vascular Diseases

NUMERO SETTE: Symptoms/signs of peripheral vascular diseases:

ARTERIES: Pathological change within the vessel, change of lumen size leading to stenosis or total occlusion resulting in ischemia of the extremity (upper/lower). HISTORY: Ask about atherosclerosis (smoking, fatty foods, diabetes), claudicatory pain, subclavian steal syndrome. AUSCULATION: Listen for bruits in various areas. ACUTE ARTERIAL OCCLUSION: Sharp pain, cold/pale extremities, absent pulse, reflexes diminished, collapsed superficial veins, gangrene without treatment. VEINS: Inspect for varices. THROMBOPHLEBITIS: Signs include inflamed, reddened nodules, painful infiltrates. PHLEBOTHROMBOSIS: Look for asymmetrical swelling, blue/pale skin, distended veins. CHRONIC VENOUS INCOMPETENCE: Signs include edema, skin color changes, ulcers.

Examination of unconscious/poorly responsive patient:

CONSCIOUSNESS TYPES: Somnolence, stupor, coma, obnubilation. EXAMINATIONS: ECG, Glasgow coma scale, Transcranial Doppler, Apnea test, Brain Stem Reflex tests.

NUMERO OTTO: Symptoms/signs of respiratory diseases:

COUGH: Dry or wet with mucous expectoration. BREATHLESSNESS: Obstructive or restrictive. HEMOPTYSIS: Coughing up blood or blood-stained mucus. CHEST PAIN: Related to bronchopulmonary diseases. Examination of spine/joints. JOINTS: Check for swelling, deformity, skin changes. SPINE: Various tests for spine conditions. Mitral stenosis and regurgitation. STENOSIS: Narrowing of mitral valve opening. REGURGITATION: Blood flows backward through mitral valve. SYMPTOMS: Fatigue, dyspnea.

NUMERO NOVE: Symptoms/signs of kidney and bladder diseases:

DYSURIA: Stinging pain when urinating. POLLAKIURIA: Frequent urination. URINARY RETENTION/RESIDUUM: Presence of urine in bladder after urination. PARADOX ISCHURIA: Strong urine retention. INCONTINENCE: Spontaneous urine outflow. RENAL COLIC: Intensive spastic pain. HYDRONEPHROSIS: Dilation of renal pelvis. ENLARGED KIDNEY: Due to various conditions. OLIGURIA: Decreased urine output. ANURIA: Virtually no urine. HAEMATURIA, BACTERIURIA, POLYURIA: Various urine conditions. Examination of the neck: Check shape, mobility, arteries, palpation, auscultation, veins, lymph nodes, thyroid. ECG, hypertrophy of sx-dx ventricles: Enlargement and thickening of ventricles.