Surface drainage

Needs drainage (flooding, deterioration of the platform, deterioration of the pavement, traffic safety, protection, Ma) The surface drainage includes 1) collection (rain or snowmelt, from the platform and its margins through gutters and scuppers caces sinks) 2.Evacuacion (recogidas.a water through collection and longitudinal arqetas natural waterways or sewage systems water table, either directly, cross drainage works or pipes open or buried) 3-restitution of the continuity of the channels natural intercepted by the road through its eventual refurbishment and construction of cross derenaje.
Functional criteria: current speed (no erosion or silting) Water level (minimum safeguards between platform and water level) raised check the current level (damage to third parties or cross drainage works as consideration of embankment dam.
Period of return: It is T when it is exceeded on average once every T years. Q The risk of this flow is exceeded once during a time interval.
Risk of obstruction: Because bodies washed away, is particularly marked in the sink and buried collectors due to the presence of garbage or landfills. To avoid this you need a proper design, an oversized icerto and effective conservation. The risk of obstruction depend on the characteristics of rivers and floodplains and can be classified in the categories: High (drag trees or similar objects), Medium (reeds, shrubs), Lower. If the dossier shall procure high risk q cross drainage works not operating at full section, leaving a minimum slip of 1.5 m width not keeping a lower floor to 12m.
If the risk is medium, anterirores figures may be halved, if not met these conditions, the superelevation deberátenerse into account the water level that may cause obstruction, podrña use especales devices to retain the floating upstream, q always ensure conservation.
Damages. Damage to the drainage element itself (maximum windspeed of water, if they could produce drag (sand, silt ..) they will ensure there is no sedimentation q or disposed of ARENA) Interruption of circulation, damage to third parties ( not catastrophic, catastrophic) benefits ..

Q The water falls on the road is eliminated due to pumping or cannot, which prevents freezing of water and avoid water spray cehiculos projected by some over others.
Types of devices drain: Longitudinal (parallel to the axis of the road), lateral (allowing a continuity of water crossed by the road layout may evacuate collected by the longitudinal flow.
It will seek to define homogeneous sections q are able to provide surface drainage networks of the same type. Special attention to the possibility to change the course dodne the inclination of the line of maximum slope of the platform is very low and the impact of some elements of the surface drainage, is recommended to choose q as well as efficient solutions are simple, robust and easy maintenance.

Caz-Strip-shaped longitudinal narrow channel lined with very little depth and usually at the edge of the platform, near sidewalks or raised the flush medium is limited by a curb or barrier. The drainage capacity depends on the depth of corriente.Esta can not be great without resorting to dangerous to cross earrings cirtculacion exes or without admitting a blade width of water. It is necessary to drain the flush for a COLECTRO through a continuous drain or a series of isolated sinks. The caces must discharging itself before the camber changes q to prevent water crossing the road.

Longitudinal gutter-Ditch open field next to the platform, you will like the ground q longitudinal slope of the road except q mas found necessary to adhere to the soil or amended pendientepara improve drainage capacity. Unless justification is used
to one of the types listed in the gutter will figura.La choice according to the following criteria: 1 Conditions of franqeamiento insurance cuneta2.Las cross-section of small ditches may only be used on rough terrain and must always be covered or protected by barriers of seguridad.3.Si would have detrimental effects on the firm by infiltration of water from the gutter (at the free surface and should not exceed the esplanade or you must have a deep drainage ditch and under the surface should impermeablizarse coated with concrete, prefabricated parts, encachados stone or bituminous materials.
Plating, where necessary: water very high speed, very low, which desse prevent water leaks, conservation areas difficult and expensive. Q The height can reach the ditch filled with water should not be such q can invade the firm less the road, minimum depth of 30 to 40 centimeters beneath the coat of water should not exceed explanada.El V max.Con the steep slopes (greater than 4%) pte revisten.Es advisable to take a minimum of 0.5% longitudinal, it is estimated Manning.
J For outstanding 0.5% senior most unfavorable section element is the downstream. Lower slopes may be allowed for q the height of the water licked at the point of Deagan is ever increasing towards upstream, with a mild growth tempered by a progressive reduction of flow eventually contributed. Under these conditions the greatest drafts were presented in the initial section and its estimation can be done by adding the draft final section calculated with Manning
Drainage flow is estimated, you select a section or type of gutter, inclinations are determined, calculate the height, calculate the V of the water, it checks the validity of the results
Drains and scuppers are elements of q collected drainage water from the scuppers are cunetas.Los caces and direct discharge devices (bridges). The sinks are devices buried water pipeline. Types of sinks(lateral curb, horzontales, mixed, continuous), each isolated sink must have a chest beneath the water q pass to the collector. The inlets are more efficient but more dangerous to traffic and are more likely to be covered with desperdicios.El type and design of drains and scuppers, q even before hydraulic considerations, you should bear in mind the safety of the circulation and the danger of obstructions, waste from the sinks plataforma.El spacing is approximately one every platform 200m2 and one every 25 to 50 m in areas with curbs urbanas.Los sinks located on the platform must not disturb circulation on it, so q: In rapid transit roads must have the edge of the platform and not inside, the surface should be steady and be careful finishing firm or contiguous zone q so the water does not pass the next to the sink without going into él.No must constitute a danger for 2-vh ruedas.La grid will be difficult to move and will havegood seat, must have the strength to withstand the vh q passing through it. Where no risk of passing on the sink vh may have depressions and inclined planes to facilitate encauzamineto water, which may be the more defendants, the lower the probability to pass vh. Aisaldos sinks located in buzzing inclined (unless q is very Peqeña his pte) will generally tb a horizontal, intercepting the bottom of the ditch or caz, with its bars and preferably in the direction of the horizontal corriente.para a sink q can q Q intercept all he will need to pass on the free length q L (cm) of the bars, where these are Parallel to the flow-grooming no less than a formula of L.
In a lateral drain may increase their ability to drain longitud.Disponer increasing its intermediate support to reduce the opening light greatly reduces the capacity of drainage. Where no risk of passing on the sink vh pordran available depressions and inclined planes to facilitate the channeling of water, which may sr accused the more the lower the probability of passage of vh.
Collectors-Manifolds tubes shall consist of the following materials, alone or in combination: precast concrete, asbestos cement, galvanized corrugated steel. The tubes must be supported on a bed of HM. The corrugated steel hoses must avoid relying on rigid beds and will require careful and symmetrical compaction of their breastworks, so as to avoid crushing q construccion.El during coating of the tubes should be sufficient to avoid damage to them in step with movement, collectors may not have diameters smaller than 30 cm are recommended q minors of 40 cm. Collectors shall be prevented lows or low-sloped sections favorable to deposit sediment, except q are inevitable and have the appropriate sandboxes.
caskets will be available to ensure the necessary inspection and maintenance of buried drainage sipositivos. The caskets must allow for easy cleaning, especially q cross the road, the distance should not exceed 50m. Collection boxes will be available especially in issues such as sinks, confluence of pipes, reloading devices, oil searadores, sandboxes, sewage infiltration to the ground, supported caskets etcNo blind or refustrables
cross-drainage of a road’s presence interrupts the natural drainage of the terrain (valleys, riverbeds, Aroyo, rivers) The main purpose is to restore the cross drainage continuity of the network, allowing it passes beneath the road concdiciones adecuadas.Tambien aprovecahm are cross drainage works to drain the drainage of the platform and its margenes.Si were too far apart, it may be necessary to provide cross drainage works exclusively for that drainage. Types: Sewers (up to 1m) Tajeas (up to 1 m sections not O) Alcantariilas (1 to 3m) Pontoons / 3 to 10 m) Bridges (lights over 10m)