Philosophy systematic answer to the great questions of human life, using the laws of logic, without special appeal to math, experimental method, or (religious) authority

Logotherapy psycho-therapy that addresses the human drive for meaning

Paradox a statement that is contrary to what it appears, but is (arguably) true

Love to see the essential traits and features in another, to see what is potential and to enable one to actualize these potentialities

Relativism Everything is a matter or opinion and there is no objective or absolute truth

Nihilism there is no meaning of life

life is absurd

Emotivism values result solely from our emotional reaction, not from facts or reasons

Radical Empiricism knowledge is ultimately nothing but perception

Skepticism no one knows anything

A Priori knowledge not constituted by any possible sense perception

Substance that which exists through itself, not by being in another

Prime Matter pure potency to be some substance

Soul 1stfirst substantial actuality of the natural body capable of life through parts-differentiation

Soul 2ndprinciple of the different kinds of activity belonging to different living things

Object target or terminus of an act, power or habit of the soul

Principle of Non-Contradiction nothing can both be and not be at the same time in the same respect

Frankl Work Man’s Search for Meaning

Socrates Work no written works

Plato Work Republic, 5 Dialogues

Aristotle De Anima

Dualism soul and body are two different substances

Dialogue question and answer between two interlocutors

Genus accident:quality

Principle statement or explanatory source

Bundle Theory of Self human identity is the result of several perceptions linked through memory

Academy Plato’s school in Athens

Hylomorphism form actualizes matter

Form that by which a thing is what it is

Matter that out of which something is made


that which exists through itself

Sophists Presocratic philosophers that went from city to city teaching rhetoric

This World-changeable and non-eternal-knowledge in the weak sense-dependent on forms for existence

Really Real World -eternal and unchangeable-knowledge in the strong sense-the cause of the existence of our world

Four Causes material,efficient, formal, final

Material Cause that out of which something is made

Efficient Cause that by which something is made

Formal Cause that into which something is made

Final Cause that for the sake of which something is made

Three Ways of Finding Meaning-in nature,-in suffering-in love (other people)

Knowledge in the Weak Sense empirical knowledge

Knowledge in the Strong Sense knowledge learned in a past life

Prime Matter has no form;pure potency of some substance

Secondary Matter matter+form

Attribute (or Accident) that which exists through substance (ex: personality)

Two Kinds of Form substance;attribute

Two Kinds of Matter Prime;Secondary

early dialogues focus on ethics

middle dialogues speaker is Plato (world of the forms is introduced)

late dialogues answers to questions, Socrates is not talked about

Proper Sensible certain qualities in physical objects that each sense is adapted to apprehend

Common Sensible common to the several different senses

Per Accidens things that are sensed accidentally

The Sense acts within a corporeal organ

Human Intellect power of the soul in the form of a body

Three Principles of Cognition 1. Cognition is a kind of becoming2. The object of cognition causes the cognition3. we cognize things through its form

8 categories quantity, quality, place, time, action, passion, relation

Quality perceptible qualities (color, shape, smell, flavor)

Unexamined Life not worth living

Body is a prison soul is trapped and death frees it

Soul as harmony cannot be true because no soul is more than another, and soul is not dependent on body

philosophy as preparation for death philosophy tells us what to expect in death and allows us to look forward to it

care for the soul being just and good

virtue is knowledge

what do we always think in? images

Frankl meaning of life gives us will to live-20th century

Socrates soul is just and our source of life-400-300 BC

Plato soul and body are separate (dualism)-400-300 BC

Hume soul doesn’t exist because we can’t see it-18th century

Aristotle soul is our sense and our intellect-400-300 BC

Augustine soul senses through body-400-300 BC

Aquinas 13th century

Philo of Alexandria 40 CE-1st greatest Jewish philosopher-Ideas are in the mind of God

Avicenna has five internal senses(central, proper, fantasy, estimative, memory)

Four Arguments of Immortality of Soul 1) Cyclical: opposite of life=death2) Recollection: Soul got strong knowledge from previous life3) Affinity: Souls is a form=indestructible4) Final: Soul is like the “immortals” who never die, so neither can the soul

1st potentiality matter or body

1st Actuality soul

2nd potentiality ability to sit down and play the piano at will

2nd actuality actually playing the piano

Universal in the mind;proper object of intellectual cognition