In May 1902 Alfonso XIII came of age and began his personal reign, the period between 1902 and 1923 (beginning of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera) permanent political crisis. # The causes of the instability of successive governments to overcome were deep and manifold: A) The personality of the King himself, played an active role in politics, was surrounded by the most conservative sector of the generals, did not know understand where the country was evolving. What he did fall into discredit the monarchy. B) The division of the parties of the turn, the disappearance of the historical leaders (Cánovas, Sagasta), the new Conservative leaders (Maura, M) and liberals (and Romanones Canalejas). C) The progressive loss of influence of despotism. D) division parliamentary process, the emergence of political parties outside the system of the Restoration. Socialists and Republicans. E) The rise of social struggles is another remarkable fact. Strikes in Barcelona and Bilbao. F) Growth of nationalist movements in Catalonia, the Basque nationalist sentiment, spurred on by Sabino Arana in a line Catholic autonomist and G) Problem military, moral consequences of the disaster and the degradation of the Army itself .
2) – RECLAMATION AND REVITALIZATION EFFORTS BY MAURA AND CANALEJAS. It should be noted regeneracionista Doctrine, initiated by Joaquín Costa proposed the revitalization of the state, through education and the economy. His motto was Pantry and School. First regeneracionismo, Costa was supported by the middle classes after 1907, was favored oligarchies. The second regeneration was led by Antonio Maura, the leader of the Conservative Party supports regeneration from above. Maura and reforms: A) in 1908 created the National Welfare Institute. B) is legislated on the Sunday rest: reducing working hours on the work of women and children. C) tried to fight the bosses, with a Local Government Act that would lead to municipal autonomy. From the economic point of view, was inclined to protectionism with a Law for the Protection of National Industry. They form a right-wing bloc supported by the Church formed a bloc of leftist counterpart in 1909 together with the crisis was the fall Maura. Following the shift system of matches was followed by José Canalejas Liberal Party, was assassinated by an anarchist in 1912 sought to modernize the parliamentary system. Canalejas resolved a complex situation with the Church through the Padlock Act of 1911, prohibited the establishment of new orders. Regarding the Catalan regionalism, advocated the establishment of the Catalan Community, the Commonwealth would be approved in 1914. 3) – THE CRISIS OF 1909. TRAGIC WEEK. It led to the events of the so-called Tragic Week in Barcelona. The remote causes are: the success of nationalism, labor mobilization and the growth of republicanism. Among workers anarchist ideology dominated. In 1907 he created the Solidarity labor. Anticlerical sentiment and anti-military. The rise of clerics, his willingness to openly illiberal made up attacks on the Church. Antimilitarism increased by the mood of many military on the defensive.The proximate causes of the Tragic Week are: A) The opposition to the policy of Maura, his declared support for the clergy. Barcelona was the cry of Maura, noo. B) The Crisis of Morocco reserves the embarkation of Madrid and Barcelona on 18 July. The anger of the workers broke. Workers Solidarity called the general strike in Barcelona on 26 July and joined the UGT. Coincided with the disaster of the Barranco del Lobo with 1200 casualties. The balance was 116 dead. There were 1500 prisoners were executed 5. Francisco Ferrer was accused of instigating and Watchkeeping (Modern School) was convicted and executed. 4)-THE IMPACT OF WORLD WAR Internationally, the reign of Alfonso XIII coincides with the stage of an arms race that led to the outbreak of the First World War (1914-1918) that had an impact on the economy.

In August 1914 the declaration of neutrality of the Spanish Government, aware of its weak diplomatic, economic and military. Public opinion was divided into “aliadófilos” and “pro-Germans.” Spain became the supplier of the countries at war was an economic boom but had negative social consequences. Food shortages aggravated the situation. 5). THE CRISIS OF 1917. Is caused by the coincidence of three crises, whose only common objective was to change the system, such crises were: A) A military crisis, internal problems of the military, technical incompetence, lack of budget. The government’s decision to prevail in the military rapid ascent to Morocco. The officers began to join in the Juntas. There was a movement of solidarity between the army led to the Manifesto of the Boards of June 1, 1917, which gave an ultimatum to the government, which resigned on June 8. The king handed the government to detail who bowed to the demands of the Army. B) A political crisis related to the insertion Impossible Real-Spain-in-Spain scheme officer of the Restoration. The opposition parties had been demanding the reopening of the courts since 1917. On 19 July, some 70 deputies and senators met and took the decision to require a change of government. Three committees were formed. C) a social crisis, connected with the labor movement. The Spanish labor movement was dazzled by the overthrow of the Czar of Russia. The Socialists tried more than a mere political makeup of the system. In early 1917, the UGT and CNT triggered a series of strikes published a manifesto against the government. The imprisoned leaders Caballero and Julián Besteiro. On 19 July launched a railway strike in Valencia. The unions called a general strike throughout the country train on 10 August. The government’s response was very hard. On September 29 union leaders were sentenced to death were pardoned a few months later. 6)-THE MOROCCAN QUESTION AND DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Morocco in the late nineteenth century was a territory-free-, behind, next to anarchy, foreign powers established a protectorate over it in a Franco-Spanish agreement of 1904. In 1906, the Algeciras Conference of France and Spain granted the joint protectorate over the Sultanate of Morocco and Spain gave the administration of the Rif region. Spanish companies began to settle there to exploit mineral resources. In July 1909 Spanish workers were attacked by Rif.Maura decided to move soldiers and reservists sent to Barcelona and Madrid. Which provoked widespread protests in the Tragic Week in Barcelona and also the military disaster of El Barranco del Lobo with 1200 casualties. José Canalejas, Liberal leader in 1911 ordered to occupy Clay, Larache and Alcazarquivir. The intensification of the war in Morocco ended up exhausting the regime. In 1919 Spain launched an expansion policy in the protectorate. This action caused the disaster of Annual, thirteen thousand men were killed in a battle against Abd-el-Krim. The Annual disaster caused a terrible impression on public opinion against the war. There were large protests in the country. The pressure of public opinion led to the formation of a military commission to investigate the events. The result was the Picasso record. The case did not involve political or criminal responsibility. On 1 October 1923, September 13 General Miguel Primo de Rivera gave a coup and established a military dictatorship.