Software Development Concepts and Methodologies

User Categorization

User categorization is most effective when the target audience is diverse, allowing for distinct criteria.

Macro-Iterative Strategy

This strategy aims to evolve systems through periodic releases, ensuring continuous improvement and adaptation.

Object-Oriented Development

Object-oriented development promotes code reuse, enhancing efficiency and scalability in software development.

Mission-Critical Systems

These systems face extreme risk exposure, necessitating significant quality assurance efforts to mitigate potential failures.

Restrictive Exception Management

This strategy ensures control and stability in handling unforeseen circumstances, addressing the”infinity problem”


Surfacing maximizes awareness at each state transition, enabling effective monitoring and management of system progress and performance.

Risk Mitigation Strategies

The effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies depends on whether the decrease in risk exposure outweighs the cost of mitigation.

Software Crisis Debate

This debate highlighted the challenges in communication and collaboration within software development due to ambiguous human-human interaction.

AI Content Generation

Ensuring the quality and authenticity of AI-generated content requires periodic reactive testing.

Partner Reliability Management

Effective strategies include sensing for immediate awareness of failures, redundant engineering, proactive partner selection, and reactive testing.

Software Development Methodologies

Waterfall Model

A sequential process with distinct phases, including requirements, design, implementation, testing, deployment, and maintenance.

Agile Methodology

An iterative and incremental approach emphasizing flexibility, customer collaboration, and delivering working software in short sprints.


An Agile framework that structures work in sprints, including ceremonies like sprint planning, daily stand-ups, sprint review, and sprint retrospective.


Another Agile framework focused on visualizing work, limiting work in progress, and maximizing flow, encouraging small, incremental changes.

Software Development Practices


Restructuring existing code without changing its external behavior to improve readability, maintainability, or performance.

Unit Testing

Testing individual units or components of a software application in isolation to ensure they behave as expected.

Integration Testing

Testing the combined parts of a software system to verify that they work together as intended.

System Testing

Testing the entire software system as a whole to evaluate its compliance with specified requirements.

Acceptance Testing

Testing conducted to determine whether a system satisfies the acceptance criteria and to enable the customer to determine whether to accept the system or not.

Version Control

The management of changes to documents, computer programs, large websites, and other collections of information, ensuring that changes can be tracked, reverted if necessary, and collaborated upon by multiple developers.

Continuous Integration (CI)

The practice of frequently integrating code changes into a shared repository, followed by automated builds and tests, helping identify and address integration issues early in the development process.

Continuous Deployment (CD)

The practice of automatically deploying every code change to production environments after passing through a series of automated tests, enabling faster and more reliable software delivery.


A set of practices that combines software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops) to shorten the systems development life cycle and provide continuous delivery of high-quality software.

Quality Assurance (QA)

The process of ensuring that software meets specified requirements and standards through planned and systematic activities, including testing, code reviews, and quality audits.

Software Maintenance

The process of modifying and updating software after it has been delivered and is in use to correct defects, improve performance, or adapt to changes in the environment.