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-Enclosures: It was the process by which the new English landowners turned the open-fields shared by a community into private properties which were fenced. -Spinning Jenny: It was a spinning frame invented by James Hargreaves in 1764. -Power loom: Patented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785, -Self-acting spinning mule: It was a machine used in factories introduced by Richard Roberts in 1830 which allowed one single person to spin several threads of yarn at the same time. -Steamboat: Created by Robert Fulton in 1807, it was an invention based on applying the steam engine to boats and contributed to the revolution in transport during the Industrial Revolution. These boats firstly used paddle wheels and it wasn’t until they invented the iron hull and propeller that they started using steam. This invention led to improvements in countries’ ports and to the creation of new canals, such as the Suez canal (1859-1869). -Railway: It was developed when the locomotive was invented and contributed to the revolution in transport during the Industrial Revolution. The first railways were developed in Great Britain and used to transport goods between mines and ports on short-distance, level tracks. This new form of transport was not fully incorporated until George Stephenson designed the Rocket (1829), first used in England and then exported to continental Europe and the US, where rail networks started to spread.  -Luddites: They were 19th-century English textile workers -Trade Unions: They were the first workers’ associations that aimed to improve labour conditions by: -Chartism: It was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain which existed from 1808 to 1857. It took its name from the People’s Charter of 1808 and was a national protest movement. Its leader was John Frost, who demanded secret ballots, universal male suffrage, yearly elections for Parliament and wages for MPs. Their protests contributed to the passing of the Ten Hour Act and the Mining Act. -Socialism: It was the economic, social and political ideology that was developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in “The Communist Manifesto” of 1848. Its objective was to end private property, seen as the cause of the inequalities between the owners of the means of production (bourgeoisie) and the people who lacked property and exchanged work for miserable wages (proletariat). A revolution directed by the socialist party would destroy the class system and would implement common ownership.  -Anarchism: It was the economic, social and political ideology developed by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Mikhail Bakunin in the second half of the 19th century. It advocates a self-governed society based on voluntary institutions. Bakunin proposed a spontaneous revolution led by peasants and the proletariat, that would abolish the State and substitute it by egalitarian communities, with equal production and consumption. -The First International: It was also known as the International Workingmen’s Association (IWA). It was founded in 1864 in London to fight against capitalism on an international level. It integrated several trade unions from different countries, socialists and anarchies. However, it would be dissolved in 1876 due to internal disputes between Marxists and anarchists. Thirteen colonies: They were the first English settlements in America since the 17th century (starting with Virginia). By the 18th century they were part of the British Empire, but they got independent after the American War of Independence (1775-1783). They were the first states of the current US. -American War of Independence (1775-1783): Soon after the Boston Tea Party, the colonists formed an army against Great Britain under the command of George Washington. During the war, the colonies met in the Continental Congress, in Philadelphia and passed the Declaration of Independence on the 4th of July 1776. In the end, the colonies defeated the British in the city of Yorktown, Virginia (1781), with the support of France and Spain, and their independence was recognised through the Peace of Paris (1783).-French economic crisis of late 18th century: It had two main causes: poor harvests and wars in the 18th century. This made the French economy to be on the verge of a bankrupt. Because of this, King Louis XVI needed a way to obtain money, so he decided to summon the Estates General in order to reach an agreement with the Three States on levying more taxes. -Estates-General: It was an assembly that had been created in the medieval period in France and had not met since 1614, made up of the representatives of the three estates, or classes. It was the only institution with the power to approve new taxes. Louis XVI summoned them on 5 May 1789 in Versailles.