Sin título 1

1. Basic physical attributes: a. Stamina b. Strength c. Speed d. Flexibility 2. Specific physical attributes: a. Coordination b. Balance c. Relax

Stamina is defined as the attribute that allows us to sustain physical exercise for a prolonged time,

Anaerobic Alactic Stamina:  It is the first energy pathway to get energy.  It involves activities from cero to 10 seconds, not longer.  Intensity between 100 – 90% of maximum.  Oxygen is not present.  Lactic Acid is not produced.  Example: speed races like 50 and 100 metres. 50 metres swimming free style, Jumps (Long jump, Triple jump, High jump, Pole vault) and throws (Shot put, Discus throw, Hammer throw, Javelin throw). 2. Anaerobic Lactic Stamina:  Used as the second energy pathway to get energy.  It involves activities from 10 to 90 seconds, not longer.  Intensity between 80 – 90% of maximum.  Oxygen is only present for a little amount  Lactic Acid is produced and stored into the muscle fiber.  Example: middle distance races like 400 metres, 800 metres, 400 m hurdles, 4×400 m relay, 200 swimming distances. 3. Aerobic Stamina:  It is the third energy pathway to carry out an activity.  A great amount of oxygen is necessary  The lactic acid usually is recycled and used to get more energy.  A big amount of carbohydrates is necessary, also fats.  It involves long distances activities among three different categories: Aerobic power: Length: between 2 and 10 minutes Intensity 60 -80% of maximum. Example: 1.500 metres, 400 metres of swimming. Aerobic Capacity: Length: from 10 to 45 minutes Intensity: 50 – 60% Example: 3.000, 5.000, and 10.000 metres. 1.500 metres swimming. Endurance: Length: for several hours. Intensity: under 50% Example: marathon, triathlon, cycling races.

TYPES OF STRENGTH A. Maximum strength. The ability to create maximum tension through a muscle contraction. It has the following characteristics: a. Maximus mass or load. b. Minimum or zero acceleration. c. For example: A sportsperson who lifts weights in a weightlifting competition. B. Explosive strength. The ability to overcome resistances or medium loads at maximum speed. It has the following characteristics: a. Small or medium mass or load. b. Maximus acceleration. c. For example: An athlete that competes in the long jump. C. Strength endurance. The ability to perform an action that needs strength for a certain period of time and resist the fatigue that it causes. It has the following characteristics: a. Médium mass or load. b. Médium acceleration. c. For example: Rowers in a kayak race or sit-ups for 60 seconds.

Hands free. This involves using your body as the load to overcome. There are lots of different exercises and you can use your whole or only a part of your body as the load.  Pairs. Use the weight or strength of a classmate as the load.  Light equipment, like exercise balls and elastic bands.  Weights and machines. Used in bodybuilding and weightlifting like dumbbells, they help you to work and develop specific muscle groups.  Circuits. This consists of executing a certain number of activities located in a space called a station. You start at a specific station and you finish the circuit once you have completed the various different activities at each of the stations.

THE STRENGTH OF OUR MUSCLES DEPENS ON:  Muscle section: the wider and thicker is, a muscle will produce more tension.  Muscle fiber type: white fast twitch fibers produce bigger tensions than red slow twitch fibers.  Muscle coordination: relationship between agonist muscles, synergists and antagonists.  Moment of inertia. 7.- PRACTICAL ADVICES TO TRAIN YOUR STRENGTH  To avoid injuries when you are strength training, it is vital that you are in the correct posture when you do each exercise. You need a classmate to help you control the load and the equipment you use.  Remember that increasing your body temperature helps strength training. Doing a general and specific warm-up helps you to avoid injuries and improves your performance.  Strength training should be complemented by flexibility training. This is essential if you want to increase your strength.SPEED 1. – CONCEPT Speed is defined as the ability to perform one or several movements in the shortest time possible. It is clear that in terms of studying and developing speed, we need to consider a series of conditioning factors. 2.- DEVELOPMENT OF SPEED IN NOT-ATHLETES PEOPLE: Our speed develops progressively to reach a maximum at around 20 years of age. This skill develops quickly from 14 years old onwards. 3.- THE SPEED DEPENDS ON : There are so many factors on which the speed depends: technical, power, flexibility, concentration, etc. Whatever the level of athlete training is, there are two groups of factors that make some people faster than others: 3.1 Genetic factors:  They are inherited factors which can not be improved with training. These are:  The speed of transmission of nerve stimulus.  Speed of muscle contraction.  The percentage of white muscle fibers (fast twitch) versus red muscle fibers (slow-twitch). Acquired factors: This set of factors can be improved with training:  The sports technique.  The strength and flexibility.  The concentration and attitude 4.- TYPES OF SPEED 4.1.- Reaction speed It is the time that a muscle takes to react in response to a stimulus. There are two types of reaction time:  Simple reaction time. This is determined by the time between the appearance of a stimulus and the completion of an action, or the time it takes to give an answer. For example, pressing a button, or removing your finger when a light or sound signal is given. In a sports environment, it is seen at the start of a speed race.  Discrimination reaction time. The person has to choose between various types of responses, depending on the type of stimulus. For example: the handball goalkeeper has to decide which part of his body he should use to intercept the ball by calculating its trajectory during a penalty. 4.2.- Contractile speed It is the ability of the muscle fibre to contract in the shortest time possible. The basic factors which influence muscle contractions are:  Strength or the ability to create tension, The speed of contraction is greatest when the muscle has the least external or internal resistance.  The frequency and intensity of the stimulus. Greater frequency and intensity stimulate a greater number of fast twitch muscle fibres.  Increase in temperature. This improves muscle fibre function because blood flow increases due to the dilation of arteries and veins. 4.3.- Travel speed Travel speed can be defined as the ability to cover a short distance in the least time possible. It is so important to emphasize the fact that the distance the sportsperson covers must be short, because normally, a non-athlete reaches maximum speed at 20 or 30 m, meanwhile a sprinter reaches it at approximately 50 m.

BASIC ADVICES FOR SPEED DEVELOPMENT:  Learning correct sport-specific technique. Failure to respect this principle will involve the acquisition of defects and injuries.  Workout activities should rise to maximum intensity, you will only improve your speed working at 100%,  The training should contain short and not numerous efforts, because only the maximum speed can be maintained for 8-10 seconds.  The breaks between effort and effort should be extended to allow full recovery.  Warm up perfectly because the speed has a high risk of injury. 6. TRAINING SYSTEMS FOR SPEED: 6.1 Travel speed:  Interval training: consists of short distances of 20-60 meters at a 100% of intensity and complete recovery between repetitions.  Supported Speed: making short running sets or using rubber bands or hill down can reach greater speeds than usually. 6.2.- Reaction speed:  Short starting: performed in different positions (standing, crouching, squatting, lying sitting, back, etc.) and react to different stimuli (voice, whistle, clap, a ball bounce, etc.).  Reaction Games set. 6.3.- Contraction Speed:  Technical Training activities.  Training gestural frequency.  Supported Gesture: training with smaller or lighter elements.

 The very anatomical and functional limitations.  The Heredity .  Sex: as a rule, women are more flexible than men.  Age: Flexibility decreases progressively with age.  Daily activity: sedentary lifestyle reduces flexibility.  The temperature of the muscle: a well-warmed muscle is stretched more easily. Therefore the importance of warm up before any sport or physical.  The degree of muscle fatigue: exhausted muscles and high concentrations of lactic acid difficult the muscles stretching.  Intramuscular Coordination: good coordination between the agonist and antagonist muscles allows muscles stretching.  The type of sport itself: not all sports require or develop flexibility at the same degree. 3.- TYPES OF FLEXIBILITY 3.1.-Absolute flexibility: the maximum range of movement of a joint. 3.2.-Working flexibility: degree of movement necessary to complete a movement. 3.3.- Residual flexibility: greater than working flexibility, is the degree of movement a sportsperson needs to develop in order to avoid stiffness (lack of coordination). 4.- TRAINING SYSTEMS 4.1.- Passive stretching Passive movements are produced by an external force (for example, gravity or the help of a classmate). 4.2.- Active stretching Active movements are produced voluntary by the force produced by yourself