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BellesLettres A literary text is an artistic text, i.e, belles lettres, i.e., a text which is aesthetic, i.e., which creates beauty and provokes emotions using words. We could define literature: writing which has claim to consideration on the ground of beauty of form or emotional effect

TheCanonization we can observe a great density of literary resources: similes, parallelisms, ellipsis, etc. at the level of microstyle, in the domain of the sentence, the paragraph, or the short poem. Other texts, especially narrative texts such as realistic novels, show little density of literary resource. Their artistry resides in features of macrostyle, plot construction, character study, etc.

Interpretation They may have different intentions and general meaning for different readers, provided that their interpretations are coherently grounded in the text.  Thus, for instance, there is not general accord in the specialized criticism as what the general meaning of great pieces of literature.

ADDRESSER Thomas Hardy, Tess of the d’Ubervilles in a serialized version in a newspaper in 1891. Appeared in book in 1892.

LiteraryAppreciation 1.Close and attentive reading of the text. 2.Try to locate the text within the period, author, and works.3.Determine the theme and motifs.4.Determine the structure 5.Analyze the form trying to elucidate in which way it contributes to enhance the theme.6.Give a final conclusion.

“Literary” a)The area of linguistic and textual competence, which includes the knowledge about the features and rules of the language concerning pronunciation, sentence formation and vocabulary and the way they can be used to convey a specific meaning. b)The area of discursive competence, which concerns the ability to relate aspects of textual meaning to specific communicative situations. c)The area of sociocultural competence, which is defined by the ability to recognize the context of interpersonal relations where communication takes place and the context of referential relations between the text and other discourses.

Acceptable An acceptable response must go beyond the surface or literal meaning of a text and capture the indirect ways through which the literary text expresses itself in such things as themes, motifs, atmosphere, the harmony of the whole, and the relationship of literary devices to themes or the social insertion of reality in the text.

PostColonial A way of reading and rereading texts of both metropolitan and colonial cultures to draw deliberate attention to the profound and inescapable effects of colonization on literary production

VersePoetry Verse, is not all the poetry. Much of historical verse in literature is not poetry, but narrative (Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, Spenser’s Faery Queen), or drama (medieval drama in diverse verse forms or Elizabethan drama mainly in iambic pentameter)

Poetry 1.Poetry is a highly overcoded variety of literary language usually formalized through verse. 2.In a second instance, it is formalized through a high density of other literary resources: rhyme, schemes, tropes and figures of thought. 3.The central or core component of poetry as a system is the lyric. 4.The attitude of the narrator as seen in the lyric, is internal-intimate. 5.The main concern of poetry is the expression of emotions.

RhymingPatterns Tercet: three lines with one rhyme AAA, BBB, CCC, etc. Terza rima: a triple group of lines consisting of interlocking triplets, rhyming ABA BCB CDC, etc. Sonnet: ABAB CDCD EFEF GG (Shakesperean) / ABAB BCBC CDCD EE (Spenserian) / ABBAABBA CDECDE (Petrarchan). Ottava rima: eight line rhyming ABABABCC

TropesFigures Tropes have to do with content. They are devices involving alteration of the normal meaning of an expression; they foreground irregularities of content.

Figures of thought are more concerned with psychological strategy of developing a theme. They deal with emotional appeals and techniques of argument.

Scheme AddreserI(EmilyBronte)->Message->AddreseeI(Reader)+Addresser2(ImpliedAuthor)->Message->Addressee2(ImpliedReader)+Addresser3(Lockwood)->Message->Addressee3(Lockwood)+Addresser4(NellieDean)->Message->Addresee4(Lockwood)

Unreliable narrator there are cases where the standards of judgement on one level contrast with those on another level. One of these cases is the so-called ‘unreliable narrator‘, the reader produces a double response: one to the (questionable) actions of a character and another regulated by their participation as implied readers on the implied author’s judgement.

Informants Informants serve to identify, to locate in time and space. They bring ready-made knowledge.

12types Major or central characters: are vital to the development and resolution of the conflict. Minor characters: serve to complement the major characters and help move the plot events forward. Dynamic:  is a person who changes over time, usually as a result of resolving a central conflict or facing a major crisis. Static: is someone who does not change over time; his or her personality does not transform or evolve. Round: is anyone who has a complex personality; he is often portrayed as a conflicted and contradictory person. Flat: is the opposite of a round character, his literary personality is notable for one kind of personality trait or characteristic. Stock: Stock characters are those types of characters who have become conventional or stereotypical through repeated use in particular types of stories.

Contradistinction  Mimesis vs. diegesis. Ostension: the showing of objects and events to the audience, rather than describing, explaining or defining them. Link between text and performance. Importance of the audience: its reaction. Coexistence of various communicative codes: extra-linguistic vs. verbal codes. Collective genre: reading a poem may be an individual act, but a play is received by an audience. A play is independent, self-sufficient. Double communicative system: characters-character. play-audience. dramatic irony. Importance of dramatic dialogues: it is the only way in which action and description develop in drama.

Playwright Through the characters’ words, dress, and behaviour. Through the sets produced by the set designer. Through the knowledge the audience bring to the performance, our cultural or encyclopedic knowledge.

Sound Noises: the actor’s voice. Music. both the actor’s voice and music includes: pitch. Stress. volume. tempo. duration. quality. Kind of music according to use: incidental songs. background music. integrated songs. integrated instrumental accompaniment. Purpose of noises, actor’s voice and music: to establish mood. to characterize. to suggest ideas. to compress characterization.

AdjacencyPairs are the basic scheme breaking down conversation in stimulus-response or question-answer units of interaction. Are composed of opening moves  and responding moves.


Gentle Do not go gentle into that good night. Dylan Thomas. The speaker emphasizes that older  men should fight fiercely and strongly against death. Importance of being alive. The theme is morality and transcendentalism. The speaker speaks to his father to fight death. Literary devices: metaphor: good night. Alliteration. Setting: night and darkness.

Tiberias Ulysses. James Joyce. Chapter 4: Calypso. Technique: stream of consciousness: attempts to depict the multitudinous thoughts and feelings which pass through the mind. Bloom picks up a cut page and looks an ad. He thinks of MosesMontefiore. He remembers when he worked in the cattlemarket.

Grandmother The Bloody chamber. Angela Carter. The werewolf. 1st person narrator. Free indirect style.

Rosen Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead. Tom Stoppard. Does not have a narrator. It’s a tragicomedy with self-conscious and humorous tone, whose writing style is minimalistic.