Sin título 1

MetalinguisticFunction It is the function oriented towards the code. It consists in the use of the code (language) to discuss or describe itself. It is the function typically fulfilled by grammars or works of linguistics

Stanza John Donne. The Canonization

Microstyle Similes, parallelisms, anaphoric references, ellipsis, rhymed verse with end-stopped and run-on lines, etc.

Suspension Poetry, drama, and novels create worlds of fictions in which readers accepts what is called the “suspension of disbelief”, i.e., they accept to take for real the imaginary worlds proposed by the literary text. This is not privative of literature.

System 1. It forms part of other superior systems in which it is embedded. 2. It is the core what regulates the system 3. The system includes other elements which lie in peripheral or liminal areas of the system and which are the areas of intersection with other systems. 4. Systems are not static, but change along time by the interplay between central and peripheral elements or/and by the contact with other systems.

Complete In its very first stages, the process of reading involves what is apparently a very objective activity, as its goal is to find out what the words in the text mean. But no single word has one and only one meaning. The reader will have to choose what they mean in the text, and will have to decide how they contribute to the general message

Competence LITERARY COMPETENCE is as our knowledge about and our ability to interact with literary texts. The term LITERARY ENCYCLOPEDIA can be defined as the part of our literary knowledge resulting from the double-sided activity of compiling, organizing and classifying the information extracted from literary and non-literary texts in the course of our contacts with them. Both activities are closely interrelated, and are very hard to separate

Psychoanalytic Freudian criticism (c. 1900–present) Jungian criticism (1920s–present) Lacanian criticism (c. 1977–present)

Verse could be defined as a mode of segmental formalization of language, by which utterances are delivered or encapsulated in stretches of a variable length (lines) such as can be perceived by the human mind as constituting a moment or a quantum of reality. The underlying principle of verse composing is human perception

Poetry The core of poetry is lyric. Lyric does not tell a story, but shows a situation or enact an emotion, and in showing any of them makes us feel

Lines monometer (line consisting of one foot, i.e. two syllables in disyllabic feet, of rare occurrence) dimeter (two feet, i.e., four syllables in disyllabic feet, also rare) trimeter (three feet or six syllables) tetrameter (four feet) pentameter (five feet) hexameter also called alexandrine (six feet) heptameter (seven feet, also rare), or octameter (eight feet, i.e, sixteen syllables, even rarer).

Smile Simile. A comparison of two things through the use of “like” or “as”. Metaphor. The substitution of a word for a word whose meaning is close to the original word [external relation]. Conceit. An extended metaphor or simile that extend iteself over the whole poem or a large part of the poem.

DavidCopperfield Addresser1(Dickens)->Message->Addressee1+[Addresser2(ImpliedAuthor)]->Message->[Addressee2(ImpliedReader)]+Addresser3(David)->Message->[Addresee3(Interlocutor)].

David Copperfield is narrated by an I-narrator, David, apparently to an interlocutor; but because there is no direct evidence of someone listening to David, we tend to assume that he is talking directly to us. As there is also no obvious reason to distinguish between author and implied author, and reader and implied reader in this novel there is little need to distinguish between the first-person character (David as child and young man), the narrator (David as adult), the implied author (‘Dickens’) and the real author (Dickens).

Sense –direct statement and attribution–other clues.–Of paramount importance in this picture are the inferences which we draw from characters’ words and behaviour.

Omniscient Third omniscient person: the author describes all that the characters see, hear, feel, as well as events in which none of the characters takes part. It is well understood that the author has an absolute knowledge of everything: characters’ feeling, emotions, thoughts, events. Third limited person: the author (as any observer) refers to all the persons in the third person, but he only relates what can be seen, heard or thought by only one character. He has not omniscient knowledge but limited. Eg. Robert Jordan in Ernest Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls. Third observer / objective person: the author narrates as if he were a witness, as if he witnessed the events, but limiting himself to what he can know. He cannot get access to the inner self of the character. Eg.: Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter.

Roland Barthes Functions can be defined as any segment of the story which can be seen as the term of a correlation of the action in that story.

Indices, however, are unit referring not to a complementary and items but to a more or less diffuse concept which is nevertheless necessary to the meaning of the story: psychological indices concerning the characters, data regarding their identity, notations of ‘atmosphere’, and so on.

Communicative Double communicative system: Characters-character. Play-audience. Dramatic irony. presence of the audience. characters say or do something that has meaning that the audience recognizes but the characters do not.

Playwright Through the characters’ words (and sometimes names), dress, and behaviour. Through the sets produced by the set designer. Through the knowledge the audience bring to the performance, our cultural or encyclopedic knowledge.

MaskWearing –The audience may be fully aware of the mask the characters wear and thus of the disparity between appearance and reality. Hamlet, mask of madness; Oedipus, unaware of his mask. – Or they may at first be as unaware of the mask as are the other characters in the play.- Sometimes mask wearers are themselves unaware or partially unaware of their masks, as in the case of Oedipus. – Moment of revelation: unmasking = climax of the plot. Iago in Othello

Breaking –Maxims of quality: a speaker will not say what he believes to be false or lack adequate evidence to assure.- Maxim of quantity: the contribution of the speaker must be neither more nor less informative than is required. -Maxim of relation or relevance: the speaker will be relevant, he will focus on the point he wishes to make and that the hearer expects. – Maxim of manner: the speaker will make his message clear and will therefore avoid obscurity or ambiguity


Elizabeth Epitaph on Elizabeth. Ben Jonson.  Written as a epigram in rhythm couplet elegy. Poem written about the death of a woman name Elizabeth, who remains unknown.

Leaf The trees. Philip Larkin. The themes are the effects of time and the transience of youth. Also the continuous rebirth and the natural cycle used to compare the life-cycle of a tree to lyfe-cycle of an human. Immortality and life and death. Young vs Old. Written in iambic tetrameter.

Rourke Ulysses. James Joyce. Chapter 4. Calypso. Technique; stream of consciousness, attempts to descript the multitudinous thoughts and feelings which pass trough the mind.

Ros Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead. Tom Stoppard. Does not have a narrator. It’s a tragicomedy with self-conscious and humorous tone, whose writing style is minimalistic.