ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY 1. What is the relationship between Posidonia and Caulerpa? -Both of them are marine plants. Another relationship is that the Caulerpa kills lots of Posidonia plants that protect the coast from erosion of the waves. 2. Which factors influence human impact on the environment? -Population -Technology -Energy -Consumption 3. Which are the main threats to the environment? -Air pollution -Water pollution -Deforestation -Endangered species -Erosion -Desertification 4. How do we prevent environmental degradation? (Draw a mind map for the next session) 5. (pg.146) WORK WITH THE DIAGRAMS: GIVE YOUR OPINION a) -Wasteful consumer style -Population growth -Lack of understanding of the environment’s importance -Economic activities like agriculture and industry -Reduce human impact on the environment -Change human activities to make them sustainable -Recover deteriorated environments -Recognize the importance of ecosystems b) Wasteful consumer style will be most difficult to achieve because nowadays people buy a lot of things without thinking. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE 1. Explain what the Ecological footprint is. -It is a way to measure the human impact on the planet and the area needed to support our lifestyles. 2. Do activities 3,4 5 and 6 on pg. 147. Act.3. -No. -Obama signed some of them but now Trump ignores that the poles are melting and he has signed signed agreements that deteriorate the environment. Act 4. -It has a smaller footprint, because it is not a developed country. Act.5. -Those they are not very developed countries. Yes because if they overexploit ecosystems, surely they can sale more things. Act 6. -If all the countries left ecological footprint like the USA, the atmosphere would be very polluted. Also, the ozone layer would become much thinner. 3. Can polluting gases be recycled? -No, these gases cannot be recycled because they are very toxic. 4. What is the difference between smog and acid rain? -Acid rain occurs when toxic gases are mixed with rain and smog occurs when toxic gases are mixed with sunlight. 5. List the effects of air pollution. -Destruction of ecosystems -Acid rain -The hole in the ozone layer -The greenhouse effect -Climate change 6. Look for information about the following International agreements: ​ -The Montreal Protocol: It was signed in 1989. It was agreed to protect the ozone layer. ​ – The Kyoto Protocol: It was signed in 2005. It was agreed to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. WATER SUPPLY 1. Why is there insufficient water in some regions? (Give more than one reason) -Because rainfall is low. -Because a lot of water is frozen. -Because there are no pipes to carry the water. 2. Look at the map. What do you think is physical water scarcity? -Physical water scarcity exists when natural water supply is insufficient to meet needs of the population. 3. What is economic water scarcity? -Economic water scarcity refers to condition in which water is available but not the infrastructures that enable human populations to use it safely. 4. In your opinion, are water scarcity and wealth related? -Yes, because if we don’t have water we can not have a shower or clean our teeth. 5. WAYS TO INCREASE AVAILABLE WATER AND ITS PROBLEMS: DRAW A MIND MAP AND LEARN IT FOR THE NEXT SESSION 6. How can we reduce consumption of water? -At home it is easy, we can close the water when we brush our teeth or we can make our showers shorters, use low irrigation systems, recycle water, use water-saving electrical appliances, policies to encourage people save water. DEFORESTATION AND SOIL DEGRADATION 1. Why are forests vital for the environment? -Because forests absorb carbon dioxide and help to fight climate change. -Because they are the habitat for thousands of species of plants and animals. -Because they cover the soil, protecting it from erosion and desertification. -Because they lower temperatures at the Earth’s surface. -Because the trees play a role in water cycle by helping water to evaporate into the atmosphere. 2. Which factors cause deforestation? -Forests are cut down to obtain wood, make farmland, create pastures for livestock or build housing, roads and railways. 3. What is soil degradation? -Soil of degradation is the loss of soil fertility. THE LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY 1. What is biodiversity? -Biodiversity is the variety of species and ecosystems on the Earth. 2. Is biodiversity a specific fact of some regions on the planet? -No biodiversity is present on the whole planet. 3. Why is biodiversity important for the environment and for life? -Because losing species has serious effects on other living things and each one has a function. 4. Why is human activity a threat to biodiversity? -For changes in soil use. -For overexploitation of animal species. -For the introduction of foreign species. -For air, water and soil contamination. -For climate change. 5. We need to take action in order to stop the loss of biodiversity. Which measures should be adopted? -Make inventories of vulnerable and endangered species. -Develop protected areas to preserve habitats and ecosystems. -Restore damaged habitats. -Pass laws that limit negative impacts (overexploitation of resources).