Scope of aquarium: the art and technique of ornamental fish breeding and trade has a tremendous scope as a cottage industry

*Firstly it requires very small investment only a couple of thousands rupees initially

*Later the money automatically gets generated by the sale of fish and aquarium accessories

*Thus the further expansion of business does not require funding through loans

*The whole setup could be accommodated in the backyard of the cottage

*The amount of water required is also not very much 

*Training of a month or so could equip the entrepreneur to start this business

*Later on by practice and experience the person becomes as an expert in aquarium fish breeding

*Ornamental fishes are very easy to breed and easy to maintain

*Besides, the making of aquarium fish food from the local available ingredients, fabrication of different sizes of class aquarium, nets, sale of bottom materials like round storms, coloured gravels, marvel chips, plastic toys & even the air diffuser aeriaters can be collected stored or manufactured at the Cottage level

*he sale of fishes and aquarum related articles is easy as it does not require a special transportation * financial institution like NABARD and national fishery board support this industry as a cottage venture.

Aquarium . It is an artificial pool or container for keeping live aquatic ani- mals and plants for ornamental, research and breeding purposes. The con- tainer holds water and is designed in such a way that living aquatic organisms can be maintained over an extended period of time.Philip Henry Gosse, coined the term aquarium as modern meaning for vessel in which aquatic animals, as well as plants, can be held.

TYPES OF AQUARIUMTwo basic materials used for aquarium construction are glass and acrylic. Glass is preferable due to reasonable cost and superior ability to resist scratches and discolouration. Aquariums are of different size and design. They can be as simple as a betta bowl or as complex as a multi-million gallon. The size for an initial community tank is in the range of 20 to 30 gallons. The dimensions of a 20-gallon high are 24 inches long by 16 inches high by 12 inches wide. The dimensions of a 30-gallon are 36 inches long by 16 inches high by 12 inches wide. A 18 gallon rectangular tank aquarium of size 60 x 30 x 38 cm is the most suitable size for home.

a) Home aquaria. They are generally made for keeping small sized indig enous or exotic fishes for decorative purposes in offices, hotels, shops, etc. When they are constructed in schools or colleges their main purpose is for study or research.

b) Public Aquaria. They are created in places of public exhibition and they have an advantage of affording the space for many larger and more exotic species. They add to the aesthetic and entertainment value of these places.

The main components of a simple home aquarium set up include the tank itself, a stand, a cover, lighting, a heater, an air pump, and filtration.

1) Tank and stand

1) Air pump and related items (iii) Filter (various types)

(iv) Heater and thermometer

(v) Decorations, including background

vi) Gravel

vil) Hood with light

viii) pH kit, siphon hose

The Fish Tank: most basic fish tanks are simply four glass sides and a glass bottom bonded together. Small basic tanks, pumps and filter systems can be pur- chased from pet stores. Elaborate tanks maybe considered if the tank is to be kept for a long period of time. Such tanks are often more expensive. Small tanks are only suitable for keeping fish for short periods of time. A tank should be kept in a cool place in the room where there is not any direct sunlight and source of heat. Larger the tank / volume of water the more stable the environment will be.

Air Pumps

The aquarium air pump is made up of air tubes and joints, controller and a power source. This includes (1) the air pump itself, (2) airline (plastic tubing). (3) a gang valve, and (4) a pump hanger (if needed). The air pumps are used in aquarium to force air into the tank (aera- tion). The air is introduced in the tank with the help of diffuser.

It creates a current that moves water from the bottom to the top and permits a greater exchange of gases as the air and water interface. It increases the dissolved oxygen content of the water and decreases the carbon dioxide content.

Water filter for filtration:Filtration maintains the quality and cleanliness of the waste and maintains the fish health . There are three basic types of filtration, bio- logical, mechanical and chemical. The magic Jet power filter is used to maintain good quality water in an aquarium. This device filters water mechanically, chemi- cally and biologically. Other types of filters commonly used by aquarist are- Box filters, sponge/foam filters, under gravel filters and reverse flow filters.

Mechanical filtration it removes the large suspended particles while chemi- cal filtration removes medications and heavy metal traces. An under-gravel air filtration is often the most effective method. It is powered by an air pump. This serves the dual purpose of driving the filter and oxygenating the water

Chemical Filtration :The general role of chemical filtration is to remove coloured or odiforous compounds from the water column.Activated carbon may be the most common mol- ecule and is primarily used to enhance water clarification. It will not remove nitrogenous wastes or soften the water. Activated carbon will remove chlorine.

Biological filtration is the oxidation of waste products, specifically ammonia to nitrite and then nitrate 

Heater-stats (Heaters with thermostats)The Thermometer of aquarium water is very important especially for tropical fishes. A heater aids in controlling the temperature of the aquarium by raising it to the desired temperature range, regulated by its thermostats.Aquarium fishes need optimum temperature to prevent biological oxygen demand and susceptibility to diseases. The thermometer is magnate to the glass surface inside the aquarium and can be read through the transparent glass or perspex. Temperature should be maintained within the range of 65°F-85°F (18-29°C) depending – upon the species.There are two basic types of heaters One remains completely submergedwhile the other, partially submerged, attaches to side of aquarium Lighting arrangement. The light bulb(s) of about 25w (240v) are fixed attached to the cover of the aquarium. The bulb (s) are either ‘clear’ or ‘pearl Background An essential part of any tank’s decor is the background. Aquarium back- grounds provide the finishing touch to any decorated tank for the best look of of fish and plants.An aquarium compost is the gravel (small stones and pebbles or a mixtu of these with sand) placed at the bottom of the tank in which plants can grown. Rocks and gravel used in aquarium are generally safe and relatively non-reactive. When natural aquarium gravel and rocks are used appropriate filter media should be placed in the aquarium to maintain desired water conditions.

NATURAL FISH FOOD organisms  a variety of natural fish food organisms are found in a water body depend. ing upon the productivity of the water body. These include phytoplankton, zooplankton, annelids, worms, insects, molluscs etc. The natural food provides the constituents of a complete and balanced diet. The demand of natural food varies from species to species and between age group of individuals. Some fish prefer zooplankton and some like silver carp prefers phytoplankton. At a younger stage, the fish may feed on plankton, and the same fish may prefer animal food Natural feeds have high protein and fat content, which promote the growth of fish. Hence, it is necessary to increase the live food in the aquatic ecosystem to improve the growth of fish.

Plankton is most essential for many fishes as food. Plankton may be in creased in a water body via application of organic manure and chemical fer tilizers. Fish production in a water body is either directly or indirectly depen dant on the abundance of plankton. 1)Phytoplanktons are generally made up of mostly uni- cellular algae which are either solitary or colonial. Phytoplankton gives green colour to the water due to the presence of chlorophyll. Chlorophyceae are called Green Algae due to the presence of chlorophyll. The chlorophyceae members that are useful as fish food are Chlamydomonas. Volvox. Oedogonium, Spirogyra, Pediastrum, Microspora, Cladophora. Cosmarium. etc.Cyanophyceae are also called as Myxophyceae and are commonly known as blue Green Algae. This colour is due to the varying proportions of chloro- phyll a. carotenoids and biliproteins. Many cyanophycean members are con- sumed by fishes. These are Nostoc, Oscillotoria, Anabaena, Microcystis, Spirulina., etc.Bacillariophyceae are called diatoms. They are unicellular organisms different shapes and sizes. These may be yellow or golden brown or olive green in colour. Golden brown pigment is present in diatoms. The reserve food with materials are fat or volutin. The diatoms consumed by fish are Diatoma, Nav cula. Cocconies, Synedra. Tabellaria. (ii) Zooplankton. Plankton that constitutes animals is called zooplankton and these are abundant in the shallow areas of a water body. The zooplankton is distributed horizontally and vertically in an ecosystem. They undergo diur- nal vertical migrations. The zooplankton forms an important group as it occupies an intermediate position in the food web, many of them feeding on algae and bacteria and in turn being fed upon by fishes. Protozoa are most primitive, unicellular and microscopic animals. And are found in fish ponds and are natural fish food 

Live fish food includes earthworms, sludge worms, water fleas, bloodworms,  and feeder fish. Food for larvae and young fish includes Protozoa, other micro- chloro organisms, newly hatched brine shrimp and microworms  Live foods like blackworms, bloodworms, daphnia, brine shrimp. ghost shrimp, cyclops.  etc. are all good choices for many fish. These are the most preferred type of food for fishes, but are difficult to get. However, freeze dried forms of earthworms, tubifex etc are also available. Live foods retain all of their original nutrition but do have some drawbacks as well. Some live food should be considered extremely nutritious and always be given preference. Others, how- ever, should always be avoided.Advantages:Not cooked or frozen. so no nutrition is lost. Extremely nutritious. Moving food stimulated a fishes appetite, especially picky or wild caught fish. It gives mental stimulation to the fish to be able to hunt. Invertebrates feel no pain. therefore, removing some moral issues with live feeding. Some things, like brine shrimp. vinegar eels, and microworms can be grown at home.Disadvantage:some foods, like blackworms, come from filthy sewage and nasty water They can sometimes carry pathogens with them that can make your fish sick. Because of this, they should be purchased on the day of arrival and rinsed thoroughly. They have a finite shelf life, often for less than a month. They are not commonly carried, especially not by large chain stores

FORMULATED FISH FOOD:aquarium fish feed is plant or animal material intended for consumption by pet fish kept in aquariums or ponds. Fish foods normally contain macronutrients, trace elements and vitamins necessary to keep captive fish in good health. Properly formulated prepared feeds have a well balanced energy to protein ratio that is different in different fish.Most fish use complete diets, those containing all the required protein (15-50%), lipid (10-25%). carbohydrate (10-25% ) . ash (5-10%) and in addition about 5 percent other material such as trace element, vitamins, minerals, supplemen- tary and complement (probiotic, prebiotic and enzymes). Vitamin C. in particular ascorbic acid, is an essential dietary component for the various stages of aquaculture organisms. It plays a role in maintaining normal growth and collagen formation, improving disease resistance and reducing stress. The nutritional value of a dietary ingredient is in part dependant on its ability to supply energy .Prepared foods are those foods that are non-living and are made by the aquarist or bought already prepared for consumption for fish. The prepared foods most commonly are produced in flake. pellet or tablet form. Dry Foods are available as pellets, sticks, tablets, granules.and wafers, manufactured to float or sink, depending on the species they are Designed to feed 1) Flake food is a type of proprietary or artificially manufactured fish food consumed by a wide variety of tropical and saltwater sh and invertebrates. It is ideally suited to top dwellers and mid-water fish though numerous bottom dwelling species consume flake food once it has settled on the bottom. Flake food is baked to remove moisture, ensuring a longer shelf life. 

Generally the more moisture a particular example of fish food contains, the more readily it will deteriorate in quality. The flakes are made from fish, squid, and plants and are fortified with vitamins and minerals to keep the fish happy and healthy.Pellets Big fish need bigger food with a better nutritional value. which is why most people choose pellets as their primary food. The pellets are made from a paste cut into small pieces and then dried. It is fortified with vari- ous nutritional substances for fish to have enough energy and nutrients. They are easily digestible, thus some small fish, like bettas, can eat them.Freeze-dried and frozen fish diets. Freeze-dried and frozen fish foods were primarily developed for tropical and marine fish and are useful in provid- ing variety to the diet or specialist feeding needs of some species. Freeze drying has been used to preserve foods for a long time. It is the process of rapidly freezing a food then reducing the surrounding pressure to remove the frozen water by sublimation. This preserves the food for a very long time. However, you do loose some vitamins in the process. Freeze dried food is also more dense, packing more calories in a smaller amount of space. Freeze dried foods should be soaked in water before feeding to aid in digestion and help prevent swim bladder problems.These include tubifex worms, mosquito larvae, blood worms, water fleas (Daphnia and Cyclops spp.) along with brine shrimp (Artemia salina).

vantages of Ornamental /Aquarium Fish Keeping

1. Ornamental fish farming can be a promising alternative for many people. 2. It requires little space and less initial investment than most other forms aquaculture.3. At the first stage of starting of an ornamental fish farm, very sophisti-ted or complicated equipment is not necessary. 4. Only a clear understanding of habits and biology of the fishes basic eds is required. 5. It can be practiced even in urban areas with little alteration.6. As less manpower is needed, the women or the elders can run smallome units.7. With the development of new equipment such as heaters, aerators and Ower filters, and practices such as selective breeding, stock manipulation and oper feeding, large units can be maintained in urban areas also. 8. Moreover aquarium equipments and accessories have opened the new venues in business trade.9. The success of ornamental fish culture greatly depends on the location nd layout of the unit with adopting proper management protocols in the reeding and rearing.Drawbacks1. Although there has been large number of fisheries set up in India avenues for expansion. But this has not been propagated due to lack of tra ing facility and awareness among the educated youth. 2. There are constraints on the availability of skilled manpower fori ndustry as their requirement.

3. Due to increasing demand for aquatic resources the inland fisheries:

decreasing over the past few decades.

Brackish water fish come from habitats with varying salinity, such as mangroves and estuaries, and do not thrive if kept permanently in freshwa- ter. Brackish water aquaria combine elements of the other types, with salinity that must stay between that of fresh water and seawater. Brackishwater ornamen- tal fishes such as monodactylus argentus M. sebae and Scatophagus argus .Exotic fishes are those species that are non-indigenous having their ori- India several exotic species of fishes have established themselves in natural water bodies. The introduction of exotic species has caused the depletion of freshwater aquatic biodiversity.) It should be a fast grower and should be easy to handle. (2) It should be compatible and should not compete with valuable native species. (3) These should be devoid of pests. parasites or diseases, so that these may not attack the native species4) They can live and reproduce in new environment.Beneficial Impacts of Exotic fishes. The exotic carps, due to their fast growth rate (high food conversion ratio), have become good candidates for the composite fish culture practice. Common carp can be made to breed in con- fined waters of pond and thus, the farmers need not go to the rivers for their seed collection during the breading season.Disadvantages of Introduction of Exotic Fish Introduction of exotic species has resulted in replacing native fish fauna In many areas. The introduction of Cyprinus carpio into Dal lake and Loktak lake has affected the indigenous fish population. Common carp has the habit of sucking food organisms in the mud on the pond bottom and margins, that makes the water muddy and weakens the base of the pond resulting in ero sion

An endemic species is a native species found in the place it occurs naturally. Often an endemic species is confined to a certain area because they are highly adapted to the particular niche. It may have evolved in that region or over time has become so adapted to that specific environment that it cannot survive elsewhere. If a species is naturally located in multiple locations. it is considered a native species, but is not an endemic one.This ornamental fish due to the nature of breeding are broadly classified as live bearers and the egg layers. Mollies, Platies, Guppies and Swordtails are typical examples of live bearers. Gold fish. Tiger barbs. Golden rosi Barbs, Koi carp Gouramies and Fighters are egg layers.