On 18 July 1936 started the Spanish Civil War, it lasted from July 18th 1936 to 1939.

It confronted 2 sides:

– The Francoist or military rebels, who wanted to overthrow the Republic, backed by the Church, right-wing parties (Ceda, Falange, Carlists), Conservative smallholders, big landowners and industrialists.

– The legally stablished Republic, backed by the Popular Front coalition parties, anarchists and communists, small bourgeoisie, peasants and workers.

On July 18th a military uprising that had been plotted since the victory of the Popular Front won was declared.

The plotters were General Sanjurjo, Mola, Queipo de Llano and General Franco among some other military officers.

Calvo Sotelo, Falange and Traditionalist, among right-wing parties.

The uprising partly failed: the succeeded in the areas where the National Bloc had won the

February elections (Galicia, northern Castile and Navarre) and in some pro-republican areas

where they took control after heavy fighting (Seville -Triana-, Oviedo, Zaragoza).

The Navy, part of the Army and the small air force remained loyal to the Republic.

The plotters failed in seizing the country’s most important areas: Cataluña, Madrid, Bizkaia,

Valencia and Andalusia. They could not seize the government nor the Estate´s gold reserves.

The rebels claimed they fought against the chaos, anarchy and communism that prevailed in Spain since the victory of the Popular Front in February. They were to save Spain, set order and save religion and the Church.

Population resisted the uprising. The government dissolved the Army and armed the popular

militias who managed to put down the insurgent in the rest of the country.

On July 18 the Basque Country was divided geographically into 2 areas:

Alava, except Ayala valley and Navarre were in national side. The requeté (Carlist milita) massive action, was decisive.

Biscay and Gipuzkoa remained loyal to the Republic.

Junta de Defensa was created in Gipuzkoa (Popular Front, PNV and CNT), but disagreements led to some disputed.

Another Junta de Defensa was created in Biscay with greater nationalist participation.

In August Colonel Beorlegui (rebel) undertook the offensive against Gipuzkoa, he took Irun in September isolating the Republic from France. Donosti was conquered 13 September. By the end of September the front was stabilized int he valley of the Deba river.

The Basque Statute of Autonomy was approved in October 1936 as a consequence of the pact of Aguirre and Indalecio Prieto. 

The nationalist Jose Antonio Aguirre PNV, was proclaimed lehendakari of a mixed government of nationalist, republicans, socialists, communists and ANV.

The territory isolation allowed a higher level of autonomy. The Basque Government created its own currency, its own police (Ertzaintza), its one international policy and its own army (Euzko Gudarostea).

In November the Basque Government launched an offensive against Villareal in Alava but it was a defeat. After it the Basque Government put all its efforts in the defense of Biscay, a defensive belt, the IRON BELT was built.

General Mola led the Northern Army of the Francoists, and decided the conquest of Biscay. Mola´s offensive was hard and the air force (Italians and Gernamna of the Condor Legion) had to break the front continuously in Otxandio, Eibar, Durango and Gernika.

The death of Mola (plane crash) did not disturb the plans. Dávila replaced him and launched the attack against the Iron Belt. The rebels occupied Bilbao on 19 June 1937.

The demoralized remnants of the Basque army left Biscay and settled in Santoña.

The leftists soldiers wanted to keep fighting, but the 



The text we are now commenting is part of the speech given by the parliament Clara Campoamor in the session of September the first of the year 1931. Depending on the origin it is a primary source, which author is a direct witness of the period, depending on the shape is a socio-political text and with a social content.During the period it was given, the first republic was going on in Spain. Azaña was the president of the republic and the reformist biennium was going on. Clara campoamor was one of the 3 women deputies in the parliament. The main aim of the text was to announce and defend the women rights. Above all the universal suffrage. Finally, the text was addressed to all the Cortes. So, this means that indirectly it is addressed to all the Spanish society. 


Talking about the main idea of the text, this is the defense of the right for woman to vote. Now I´m going to talk about the secondary ideas, first of all, Clara explains that women as humans’ beings should have the right to vote freely by constitution. This is mentioned in the first and second line. (respetad su derecho como ser humano…) Also, Clara mentioned that the women must educate in the right of voting. This basically means that women must learn how to vote in an independent way. This is mentioned in the line 6. (que sera la unica forma que se eduque en el…) Talking about the third idea. This one would be how clara denounces that monarchy hasn’t helped women rights at all. This is mentioned in line 10 (veinte siglos de monarquia…)Finally, she mentioned the desire of being spain the first country to obtain universal suffrage. This is mentioned in the las part of the speech. (que sea mi España…)  


This all began with the king Alfonso XIII going out of Spain due to the so called “pacto de San Sebastian”. In this pact all the republican representatives argued and agreed that the republic should be reestablished and that freedom of religion and policy would be reestablished. After this agreement, the 12th of April, after the military coup of Berenguer, admiral Aznar called for local elections. Republicans won and the president would be Niceto Alcala Zamora. A provisional government began. The main goals of this republican government were the reform of the army, the separation of the church, the states government, the new autonomies for Catalunya and the Basque country and the social and economic reforms. Finally, new elections were hold in

June 1931 and the republican-socialist (were Clara milited) won and reformist biennium started. Manuel Azaña became the prime minister of the government and made huge changes in order to make a stronger country. They reformed the army, the education, the labor reform, the autonomies and the separation of the church from the government. During this period was when Clara made his speech. Women started to obtain better rights such as the ones that Clara defended. In the end they obtained the right to vote freely just same as men. When the Second Republic was unlawfully proclaimed in April 1931 and King Alfonso XIII went into exile (without renouncing his rights), a provisional Government was set up consisting of the leaders of those parties which had signed the San Sebastian Pact (17 August 1930). Its main task will be to call elections for Constituent Courts (June 1931). They were won by a coalition of Republicans and Socialists whose first task will be to draft a new Constitution. The discussions were very intense, especially with regard to the “religious question”. A special mention, given the nature of the text we are discussing, is the issue of equal rights for men and women and, consequently, that of suffrage. In the Cortes there were only two women out of 465 deputies: Clara Campoamor (Radical Party) and Victoria Kent (Republican Left). At the end of the same year, Margarita Nelken (Socialist Party) joined. Of the three, Clara Campoamor was the most involved in defending women’s rights and played an important role in the debate about women’s suffrage. Her intervention led to Article 25 saying “They cannot be the basis of legal privilege: nature, filiation, sex, social class, wealth, political ideas or religious beliefs”: After long debates in all respects (Clara Campoamor defended women’s suffrage and Victoria Kent opposed ‘not for the capacity of women but for the opportunity of the Republic’) The article 34, which established on the equalization of electoral rights for citizens of both sexes over twenty-three years old was finally approved by 161 votes in favour and 121 against. They voted in favor: the Socialist Party (with some notable exception as that of Indalecio Prieto), the right and republicans. The first elections in which women participated were those of 1933, and they were inevitably blamed for the victory of the right. It was, however, a superficial conclusion. Even if it accepted that a part of the female electorate could have influenced the right-wing result of the elections, if all the leftist votes cast in those elections were added, they still outnumbered those of the conservatives. It was above all a question of strategy and unity, as I would be responsible for demonstrating the elections of February 1936 with the victory of the Popular Front.


In order to conclude this text, I would like to mention that this text is vital in order to understand the Spanish history.  Thanks to this speech, in an indirect way, all the women inside the Spanish society obtained the rights




The text we are now going to comment is part of the so-called Basque statute of autonomy. This text is a sociopolitical text due to it’s a statute and informs about measures to be applied in society. 

The text is a primary source because it is related with the topic by time and participation and the ones who made it are direct witnesses of the period. Also, it was published at the same time it was written. 

The text was written by all the parliamentarians who were in the Cortes at that age and it was addressed to all the Spaniards that wanted to read it. It was a public text. 

The text was published the 4th of October of the year 1936 in the so called “Gazeta de Madrid”. During this period the civil war going on and the Basque country was both national and republican. That’s why this statute was only established in Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa which were republican. Finally, talking about the aim of the text, this was to inform all the society, specially the Basque one, about the new statute that was approved by the Cortes. 

Content analysis:

Talking about the main idea, this is to present the Basque statute to the Basque society.  To present the autonomy.  On the other hand, the secondary ideas would be the articles themselves. The first idea that is developed is the constitution of Alava, Gipuzkoa and Bizkaia as an autonomous region within the Spanish State. It explains that the legal sources on which this fact is based are the Constitution of the Republic and the Statute itself. It also indicates that each of the three territories will be governed autonomously and will have Basque and Spanish as official languages. Article 5 allows the Basque Government to have its own police (Ertzaintza) to maintain public order. In article 10, two fundamental principles of liberalism: popular sovereignty and the division of powers are explained. It clarifies both issues by indicating that they should be made in accordance with the Constitution and that the Lehendakari is the only representative of the region in his relations with the Republic.

Historical context:

Since the abolition of the privileges in 1876 by Cánovas del Castillo and the industrialization the idea of the restoration of forality started to gain force. These movements created the official birth of the Sabinian nationalism at the turn of the century.

This nationalism is the main supporter of a Statute that includes the fundaments of the old fueros. However, all their efforts will be nonsense until the proclamation of the second republic. When the coalition of Republicans and Socialists won the 1931 elections, they were soon approved the Catalan Statute. This, in fact motivated the so-called Basque Country statute. The delay will be due to the absence of the Basque nationalists from the Pact of San Sebastián (1930).

However, the rise to the center-right government of Lerroux and CEDA will paralyze its approval. During the triennium in which these forces are in power (1933-1936) politics, in general, will suffer a return to previous moments. Only the arrival of the Popular Front (1936) and the position contrary to the Francoist military uprising of the Bizakaian and Gipuzkoan nationalists will lead the Spanish Congress of Deputies to approve the first Statute of Autonomy which articles we are commenting.

This Statute was approved with the war already started. It was only applied in Bizakaia and a small part of Gipuzkoa. On the other hand, his life will be short because after a year these lands were also conquered by Franco and the Statute, together with the Economic Concert, was abolished. There were only respected in the territories of Alava and Navarra because they surrendered. 


First of all, I would like to say that this text is vital in order to understand in a proper way the Spanish history. 

The arrival of the Second Republic and the support that nationalism gave to the Popular Front in the civil war brought to the approval in 1936 of this Statute.

The articles we have comented show us some of the aspects included in it:, official language, nature of the Basques and the powers of the legislative, executive and judicial branches. The Statute had a very short life (nine months) but served not only as an objectification of the feeling of the Basque Country but as the basis of what it is currently in force. On the other hand, it is the first time that the Basque Country’s ability to govern itself was recognized.



The text we are now commenting is part of the political program of the so called “frente popular” political party. It was published in the “el socialista” newspaper the 16th of January of the 1936. By this time, the Second Republic was about to finish, this were the last months of it. 

The text is a primary source because it is related with the topic by the time and participation and the authors of the text were direct witnesses of the period. Also, important to mention that the text is an informative text published in a newspaper of a political/ historical character because it is a political programme of a political party at that age. 

The text was addressed to all the Spanish society. Obviously, this text was a public text. All the Spanish society could read it. And the main aim of it was to inform the country about the new program elected by this political party.


Talking about the main idea of the text, this one would be to defend and inform about the new ideology of the political party. 

Talking about the secondary ideas:

Talking about the first one, this one would be the description of the coalition itself. This is mentioned in the first paragraph of the text. (have reached a compromise with a same political scheme…) 

The compromises would be the next ones:

The total amnesty for the ones that committed offenses in November 1933. (wide amnesty to the political and social offenses…)

The defense of freedom and justice in the republic would be vital. The empire of the constitution would be back. (the defense of freedom…)

Land nationalizations would not be enforced. (the republicans do not accept land nationalization…) and on the other hand the banks would be now nationalized. (nationalization of the banks…) 

The republic will fight in order for the wellbeing of the workers in Spain. (mentioned throughout the hole last paragraph) 


After the proclamation of the Republic and the subsequent Provisional Government, in 1931 general elections were called, in which a coalition of Republicans and Socialists won.

During the Republican-Socialist Government (1931-1933), Niceto Alcalá Zamora was appointed President of the Republic and a new Constitution was done. Between 1931 and 1933, Republicans and socialists made some reforms in order to improve the situation in Spain, including educational, military, agrarian, social and territorial reforms. This Government ended after the 1933 elections which were won by the radicals and the cedistas (supporters of the CEDA political coalition).

In the elections of 1933, the right (CEDA) led by José María Gil Robles and the center (Radical Party) of Alejandro Lerroux made a coalition and achieved the victory in the elections. This win brought a series of consequences. Among the prominent policies: the division of the country (left and right), the rise of fascism (the extreme right), the slowdown of reforms carried out by the Republican-Socialist Government (mainly agrarian reform), amnesty for those arrested in the “La Sanjurjada”, the confrontation with Catalonia for the slowdown of the process of the Catalan statute and the paralysis of the Basque statute. Other consequences of the change of government were the military, such as the “October Revolution of 1934”, which had great importance in the mining area of ​​Asturias and the north of León. This was led by the PSOE, the UGT union and the Catalans. The reasons for experiencing this revolution are the fear of CEDA fascism and the incidence of the Russian Revolution.This Government ended after the general elections of 1936.

In the 1936 elections the right (CEDA) and the center (Radical Party) presented separately and the left was presented together under the name of the Popular Front. The Popular Front was formed by the left and most of the progressive forces. Its program highlights the restoration of the policy of reforms of the Republican-Socialist Government and the amnesty for those imprisoned in the “October 1934 Revolution.” The text presents a fragment of his electoral program.


First of all, in order to conclude this text, I would like to say that this text is vital in order to understand the Spanish history. The analyzed text contains the foundations on which the Popular Front was based and which made publicity for the elections of (16.02.1936). In it the amnesty is requested to the detainees in the October Revolution of 1934 and defends freedom, justice and a new Constitution.

Republicans disagree with the Socialists on the principle of nationalization of the land, on the nationalization measures of the banking system and on workers’ control. The text is relevant because it reveals the importance of the formation of the Popular Front to achieve the electoral triumph of the left in the 1936 elections. In addition, its political program was based in measured claims, in no way so revolutionary. This feared rights so much.