Reproductive Health and Techniques

4.) Answer the following questions in short.

1) Explain with examples types of asexual reproduction in unicellular organism.

ANS:a. Asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms can be of three types:
Binary fission: Binary fission is the splitting of parent organisms into two halves, each of which develops to form a complete daughter cell. For example, Amoeba reproduces asexually by the process of binary fission. In Amoeba, binary fission begins with the division of the nucleus. This is followed by the division of the cytoplasm and the cell. Each part receives a portion of the nucleus. Finally, two cells are formed from one parent Amoeba.

Multiple fission − Multiple fission is also seen in Amoeba. In this method, the parent microbe divides into many daughter microbes. Amoeba shows multiple fission under adverse conditions. It covers itself in a protective covering and forms a structure known as cyst. Inside the cyst, the nuclei undergo repetitive nuclear division followed by cytoplasmic division and result in the formation of amoebules. These amoebules are released together when the conditions turn favourable.

Budding − In this method, a bud develops as an outgrowth from the parent body. This developing bud detaches from the parent body and the daughter individual develops further. For example, yeast reproduces asexually through the method of budding. During this process, small bulb-like projections (called buds) start coming out of the yeast cell. These buds gradually grow in size and get detached from the parent cell to form a new yeast cell. The new yeast cell then grows and becomes mature to form more yeast cells.

b.) Explain the concept of IVF.

Ans: – When there is a problem in fertility to have a baby, then this technology is used. IVF or in vitro fertilization, the sperm is added to the mother cell or egg cell from outside for fertilization.

c.) Which precautions will you follow to maintain reproductive health?

Ans: – The precautions which must be taken to maintain reproductive health are –

  • Balanced diet is very important.
  • Personal hygiene as well as exercise are also important.
  • Be careful that taking drugs is harmful.

d.) What is the menstrual cycle? Describe it in brief.

Ans: – The menstrual cycle is a reproductive cycle which is seen in females. This cycle occurs every 28 to 29 days.

In the menstrual cycle, the female body releases an ovum at the middle portion of the cycle. The luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone are released in this period. The estrogen hormone is produced after this.

5.) In case of sexual reproduction, newborns show similarities in characters. Explain this statement with suitable examples.

Ans: – In sexual reproduction, the male and female gametes fuse to form a zygote. From the gametes, the complete cell is produced. This new individual bears the characteristics of both the mother and father. For example, a child may have a mixed hair color of black and brown if the mother has black hair or the father has brown hair, or vice versa.

7.) Give the names.

a.) Hormones related to the male reproductive system.

Ans: – Testosterone hormone is a male reproductive hormone.

b.) Hormones secreted by the ovary of the female reproductive system.

Ans: – Estrogen and progesterone are secreted by the female reproductive system.

c.) Types of twins.

Ans: – Monozygotic and dizygotic are the two types of twins.

d.) Any two sexual diseases.

Ans: – Sexual diseases are syphilis, AIDS, Gonorrhea

8.) Gender of a child is determined by the male partner of the couple. Explain with reasons whether this statement is true or false.

Ans: –Yes, the gender of a child is determined by the male partner. As the male has two chromosomes (XY) and the female has two X chromosomes. So, the mother gives just an X chromosome while the father gives either an X or Y chromosome.

9.) Explain asexual reproduction in plants.

Ans: – Plants show vegetative reproduction by using stem, root, leaf. The underground stem produces a new organism by a bud. Potato is an example of this reproduction. The underground stem of ginger shows these types of reproduction. By using a leaf, asexual reproduction of a plant happens.

10.) Modern techniques like surrogate mother, sperm bank, and IVF technique will help human beings. Justify this statement.

Ans: – The different techniques of IVF are –

  • ZIFT or zygote intrafallopian transfer: In this case, male sperm and female ova are fused in the laboratory then pushed into the female body.
  • In intrauterine transfer, more than 8 blastomeres are transferred to the female body uterus.
  • Sperm bank also helps in IVF.
  • The other processes of IVF include surgery, gamete intrafallopian transfer, artificial insemination, etc..

11.) Explain sexual reproduction in plants.

  • In sexually reproducing plants, flowers function as the reproductive organs.
  • In flowers, the male organ is the stamen and the female organ is the carpel.
  • Flowers which have both the male and female organs, i.e., stamens and carpels, are called bisexual flowers whereas flowers which have either male or female organs are called unisexual.
  • Male gametes called pollen grains are produced by the stamen, and carpels produce female gametes called ovules or egg cells inside ovaries.
  • Fertilization takes place in the ovule where the egg cell and pollen grain fuse.
  • This fertilized egg cell later develops into an embryo and the entire ovule gets converted into a seed.
  • Under favorable conditions, the seed germinates to give rise to a new plant.